Stakeholders Assessment of Constraints to Project Delivery in the Nigerian Construction Industry

Bruno L. Tanko, Fadhlin Abdullah, Zuhaili Mohamad Ramly


The central goal of construction stakeholders is to successfully deliver projects to stated objective (s). However, for decades, construction projects have been plagued by perennial constraints of cost and time overruns, poor quality, and lack of sustainability. The objective of this paper is to identify and assess the constraints to construction project delivery, and to recommend solutions to enhance project performance. This paper adopted both quantitative and qualitative methods to establish the constraints in the Nigerian construction industry. A pilot survey and literature reviewed revealed a total of fifty (50) construction constraints, which were further classified into eight (8) major groups. Well-structured questionnaires were administered to construction stakeholders (client, consultant and contractor) in Abuja, the federal capital city of Nigeria. Relative Importance Index (RII) was used to analyze the data using Likert scale.  The results suggest that cost/time overrun related factors (inability to reduce project cost), Stakeholders interactive-related factors (inability to establish client value system), Client-related factors (Delay in interim payment and finance problem), and Labor/material-related factors (escalation of material prices and materials quality variability) are the most prevalent constraints in the Nigerian construction environment.  To mitigate the effects of these challenges, it is suggested that a formal innovative approach should be used by stakeholders to address the problems of poor communication, high project cost, and delay. Clients should also take measures to provide adequate funding and should promptly honor interim certificates.


Full Text:



Aibinu, A.A. and Jagboro, G.O. (2002). The effects of construction delays on project delivery in Nigerian construction industry. International journal of project management, 20(8):593–599.

Akanni, P. O. (2014). Impact of environmental factors on building project performance in Delta state, Nigeria. HBRC Journal, 11(1):91–97.

Ali, A. S. and Rahmat, I. (2010). The Performance measurement of construction projects managed by ISO- certified contractors in Malaysia. Journal of Retail & Leisure Property, 9(1):25–35.

Ameh, O. J., Soyingbe, A. A., and Odusami, K.T. (2010). Significant factors causing cost overruns in telecommunication projects in Nigeria. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 15(2):49-67.

Atomen, E., Chuka, O.C., Emeka, I.K. and Samuel, O.S. (2015). Labour productivity in construction industry in Nigeria: case of Lagos and Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 7(4):28-33.

Awodele, O. A., Ogunlana, S. O. and Motawa, I. (2009). Understanding and managing risks necessary condition for success and sustainability of privately finance market projects in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference for Post-graduate Researchers of the Built and Natural Environment at Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland.Baloi.

Balogun, O.M. (2005). Clients’ perception on measure of indigenous contractors performance in the construction industry. The Professional Builders, Journal of Nigerian Institute of Building. 42-48.

Daniel, E.I., Pasquire, C. and Ameh, O.J. (2014). The magic of the last planner system for Nigerian construction. Production Planning and Control, Proceedings IGLC-22, June 2014 Oslo, Norway, p.605-616. Retrieved on April 12, 2016 from

Desai, M. and Bhatt, R. (2013). Critical causes of delay in residential construction projects: case study of central Gujarat region of India. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 4(4):762-768.

Dim, N.U. and Ezeabasili, A.C.C. (2015. Strategic supply chain framework as an effective approach to procurement of public construction projects in Nigeria. International Journal of Management and Sustainability. 4(7):163-172.

Eshofonie, F.T. (2008). Factors affecting cost of construction in Nigeria. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Building, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

Global Construction (2010). Global construction 2020 and global opportunities. Global Construction Perspectives and Oxford Economics. Retrieved on November 5, 2015 from

Helen, B.I., Emmanuel, O.O., Lawal, A. and Elkanah, A. (2015). Factors influencing the performance of construction projects in Akure, Nigeria. International Journal of Civil Engineering, Construction and Estate Management, 3(4):57-67.

Kasimu, M.A. (2012). Significant factors that causes cost overruns in building construction projects in Nigeria. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business. 2:775-780.

Kunya, S. U., Hussaini, I.U., and Yusufu, M. I. (2005). Appraising causes of inflated costs of public construction projects in North East Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Construction Technology and Management, 9(1):72-81.

Mansfield, N. R., Ugwu, O.O., and Doran, T. (1994). Causes of delay and cost overruns in Nigerian construction projects. International Journal of Project Management. 12(4):254-260.

Muhwezi, L., Acai, J. and Otim, G. (2014). An assessment of the factors causing delays on building construction projects in Uganda. International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 3(1): 13-23.

Nigerian Bureau of Statistics (2015). Nigerian gross domestic product report. Quarter one. Retrieved on October 11, 2015 from / pages/download/281.

Nigerian Bureau of Statistics (2016). Nigerian gross domestic product report. Quarter two, issue 10. Retrieved on August 15, 2015 from


C.C.C. (2003). High cost of building in Nigeria: factors responsible and remedies. The Quantity Surveyor, Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors, 44 (3):18-27.

Odediran, S.J. and Windapo, A.O. (2014). A systematic review of factors influencing the cost performance of building projects In: Laryea, S. and Ibem, E. (Eds) Proceedings 8th Construction Industry Development Board (cidb) Postgraduate Conference,10-11 February 2014, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 501-520.

Odeyinka, H.A. and Yusif, A. (1997). The causes and effects of construction delays on completion cost of housing projects in Nigeria. Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, 2:31–44.

Okpala, D. and Aniekwu, A. (1988). Causes of high costs of construction in Nigeria. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 114(2):233–244.

Ojoko, E.O., Tanko, B.L., Jibrin, M., Ojoko, O. and Enegbuma, W.L. (2016). Project Delay Causes and Effects in the Construction Industry. In IGCESH. Proceedings of the 6th International Graduate Conference on Engineering, Science and Humanities,15th-17th August, 2016, p.221-223.

Omoregie, A. and Radford, D. (2006). Infrastructure Delays and Cost Escalation: Causes and Effects in Nigeria. Proceeding of Sixth International Postgraduate Research Conference, Delft University of Technology and TNO, Netherlands. 3rd-7th April 2006.

Otunola, A.T. (2008). Construction cost and time overrun-a builder’s perception of contributory factors. The Professional Builder, Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Building, September, 2008.

Oyegoke, A. S., Dickinson, M., Khalfan, M. M. A. et al. (2013). Construction project procurement routes : an in- depth critique. Retrieved Arpril 27, 2016 from

Ramly, Z.M., Shen, G.Q. and Yu, A.T.W. (2015). Critical success factors for value management workshops in Malaysia. Journal of Management in Engineering, 31(2): 05014015.

Tanko, B.L. and Azi, T.A. (2011). Petroleum products prices as drivers of building construction materials price fluctuations in Abuja, Nigeria (1990-2010). Nigerian Journal of Construction Technology and Management, 12(1):21-25.

Wahab, A.B. and Alake, O. (2007). Effects of delay on construction projects in Nigeria. Built Environment Journal, 3(1): 21-27.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Copyright © 2014 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.

Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.