Conditions for Implementing Windowless Offices in High-Density Urban Centers of Malaysia: A Bibliometric and Systematic Review


  • Thomas Terna Aule Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Roshida Abdul Majid Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Anthony Peter Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Kamaldeen Jide Anifowose School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Nigeria



Keywords: Bibliometrics Analysis, Malaysian urban, Visual comfort, VOSviewer, Windowless Office, workplace environment.


The dearth of land in high-density urban centres necessitates constructing structures with deep interiors, with little or no connection to the external environment. Additionally, the negative relationships between high-rise structures in the city centres in recent times are increasingly making contact with the outdoor environments undesirable. Whether in the built environment, decision sciences, healthcare, or technological disciplines, there is a need to understand the factors necessary for windowless office implementation, its prominent researchers, and geographical contexts, among other conditions for practical application. These background variables could assist in arriving at emerging themes, problems and gaps for concrete windowless office development in Malaysia. In this systematic review, the bibliographic information of title, abstract and keywords was mined from 255 documents on the Scopus database to generate scientometric maps and links showing relationships on co-authorship, co-citation, co-occurrences, and bibliometric coupling. The top trending variables in windowless office research are COVID-19, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, heart rate variability, performance assessment, visual reality, and workplace environment. Like other advanced economies in Asia, Malaysia is seen to attain a satisfactory level of development to implement the windowless office design module, with stable electricity power, technological advancement, and psychological stability of the people. The emerging variables in this review will give novel directions in exploring the developmental, psychological and health conditions for effective windowless office implementation in the country and similar economies in Asia, Africa and South America, where metropolises are fast becoming compacted due to ever-growing city centres

Author Biographies

Roshida Abdul Majid , Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

Dr Roshida Binti Abdul MAJID, is a Senior Lecturer of Architecture at the Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Her research interest includes sustainable architecture and environmental sciences. She supervised this study's progress, providing valuable feedback and discussion for the final form of this article.




Anthony Peter, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

Anthony Peter is a PhD scholar at Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. His research interest is in Flood resilience in the built environment, and Scientometrics.



Kamaldeen Jide Anifowose, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Nigeria

Kamaldeen Jide Anifowose is Senior lecturer with Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Nigeria. He specialises on using computer packages in design and research.




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How to Cite

Aule, T. T., Abdul Majid , R., Peter, A., & Jide Anifowose, K. (2023). Conditions for Implementing Windowless Offices in High-Density Urban Centers of Malaysia: A Bibliometric and Systematic Review. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 11(1), 15–31.