Virtual Reality for Architectural or Territorial Representations: Usability Perceptions
AbstractVirtual reality (VR) is widely being researched within various aspects of real-world applications. As architecture and urban design are very much adhered to evaluating and designing space, physical representations are deemed as incompetent to deliver a full-scale depiction of a space. Similarly, digital models are very much also limited in that sense. VR can deliver a full-scale virtual environment (VE), tricking users to be immersed in the replicated environment. This is an advantage for the aforementioned design disciplines, as more relatable and realistic depiction of a space can be modelled. The notion of its usability has become important to be understood from the perspective of architecture and urban design. This paper measured the respondents’ perceptions of VR’s usability through measuring its quality of use based on several criteria. The criteria established were the ease of use, usefulness, and satisfaction. Different levels of architectural details were decided as a form of control. A total of N=96 randomly selected respondents from various backgrounds participated in the survey as they were divided into four different group of treatments. Each group experienced a different VE with different level of architectural details. The first section of analysis is a one-sample analysis and the second is a group difference analysis. From the first analysis, it was found that the respondents perceived VR as a usable tool for architectural or territorial representation. Using Kruskal-Wallis test, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between groups, suggesting that the respondents perceived VR as usable regardless of the level of architectural details. As this paper used perception data based on the quality of use alone, the efficiency of VR system was not measured. Thus, this paper recommends further studies to be conducted on the system’s efficiency to reflect its usability in full extent.
Bevan, N. (1995). Measuring Usability As Quality of Use. Software Quality Journal, 130, 115–130.
Boas, Y. (2013). Overview of Virtual Reality Technologies. Interactive Multimedia Conference. Retrieved from http://mms.ecs.soton.ac.uk/2013/papers/yavb1g12_25879847_finalpaper.pdf
Bowman, D. a, Mcmahan, R. P., & Tech, V. (2007). Virtual Reality: How Much Immersion Is Enough? (Cover story). Computer, 40(7), 36–43. Retrieved from http://ezlibproxy.unisa.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=25758828&site=ehost-live
Boyen, S. (2009). A Virtual Failure : Evaluating the Success of Nintendo ’ s Virtual Boy. Velvet Light Trap, 23.
Brooks, F. P. (1999). What’s Real About Virtual Reality? Proceedings IEEE Virtual Reality (Cat. No. 99CB36316), (December). http://doi.org/10.1109/VR.1999.756916
Ceconello, M., & Spallazzo, D. (2008). Virtual Reality for Enhanced Urban Design. 5th INTUITION, International Conference Virtual Reality in Industry and Society, From Research to Application. 6-8 Ottobre 2008, (October). Retrieved from http://www.davidespallazzo.eu/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/2008_Spallazzo_Virtual-reality-Enhanced.pdf
Chang, R., Butkiewicz, T., Ziemkiewicz, C., & Wartell, Z. (2008). Legible Simplification of Textured Urban Models. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 27–36.
Cohen, M. M. (1992). Full-scale Architectural Simulation Research for Space Station Freedom and Exploration. IDEEA One: The First International Design for Extreme Environments Assembly.
Drettakis, G., Roussou, R. M., Asselot, U. C. L. M., & Alex, R. (2005). Participatory Design and Evaluation of a Real-World Virtual Environment for Architecture and Urban Planning.
El Araby, M., & Okiel, A. Y. (2003). The Use of Virtual Reality in Urban Design : Enhancing the Image of Al-Ain City , UAE. In International Conference on Urban Planning and Regional Development (pp. 383–392).
Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J. N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A Survival Guide for the Social Scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21(3), 95–113. http://doi.org/10.1027/1864-1188.8.131.52
Halley-Prinable, A. (2013). The Oculus Rift and Immersion through Fear. Bournemouth University. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/5387318/The_Oculus_Rift_and_Immersion_through_Fearnhttp://www.adamhalleyprinable.com/#/thesis/
Lavalle, S. M., Yershova, A., Katsev, M., & Antonov, M. (2014). Head tracking for the Oculus Rift. Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 187–194. http://doi.org/10.1109/ICRA.2014.6906608
Lewis, J. R. (2006). Usability Testing. Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation. http://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.1349
Li, B., Zhang, R., & Kuhl, S. (2014). Minication affects action-based distance judgments in oculus rift HMDs. Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception - SAP ’14, 91–94. http://doi.org/10.1145/2628257.2628273
Losciale, L. V., Lombardo, J., & De Luca, L. (2012). New semantic media and 3D architectural models representation. Proceedings of the 2012 18th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, VSMM 2012: Virtual Systems in the Information Society, 533–536. http://doi.org/10.1109/VSMM.2012.6365970
Luebke, D., Watson, B., Cohen, J. D., Reddy, M., & Varshney, A. (2002). Level of Details for 3D Graphics (1st Editio). New York: Elsevier Science Inc.
Lund, A. M. (2001). Measuring usability with the USE questionnaire. Usability Interface, 8(2), 3–6. http://doi.org/10.1177/1078087402250360
Shiode, N. (2001). 3D Urban Models: Recent Developments in the Digital Modeling of Urban Environments in Three-Dimensions. GeoJournal, 52(3), 263–269.
Steuer, J. (1992). Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73–93. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00812.x
Wann, J., & Mon-Williams, M. (1996). What does virtual reality need?: human factors issues in the design of three-dimensional computer environments, 829–847. http://doi.org/10.1006/ijhc.1996.0035
Zyda, M. (2005). From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. Computer, 38(9), 25–32. http://doi.org/10.1109/MC.2005.297
How to Cite
Copyright of articles that appear in International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability belongs exclusively to Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Penerbit UTM Press). This copyright covers the rights to reproduce the article, including reprints, electronic reproductions or any other reproductions of similar nature.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- This Journal applies Creative Commons Licenses of CC-BY-NC-SA
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).