An Evaluation of the Interfacial Bond Strength of Kenaf Fibrous Concrete and Plain Concrete Composite


  • Ogunbode Ezekiel Babatunde Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Jamaludin Mohamad Yatim
  • Hazim Affendi
  • Azmahani Abdul Aziz
  • Ishak Mohd Yunus
  • Hazlan Abdul Hamid



The deterioration of concrete structures is a matter of critical concern as it threatens the durability and strength of concrete structures. Kenaf fibrous concrete composite (KFCC) can be used with advantage in new structures such as precast elements, as well as the strengthening, repair and rehabilitation of old structures to improve their durability properties. These structures are composite components, with parts as Plain concrete (PC) and others as KFCC. This study, therefore, investigated the interfacial bonding behaviour between KFCC and PC. Shear, tensile and compressive tests were carried out to measure the bond strength in shear, direct tension and compression respectively for PC to PC, PC to KFCC and KFCC to KFCC interface. Three different types of concrete grade (25, 35, and 45 MPa) were produced for the KFCC and one type of concrete grade (35 MPa) for the substrate PC. The outcome of the test showed that KFCC had an excellent interlock with the surface of the PC substrate, and thus, gives bond strength greater than the strength of PC. New concrete with the highest concrete grade of 45 MPa ensued in high compressive, tensile and shear bond strength.

Author Biographies

Ogunbode Ezekiel Babatunde, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Building, department. FUT, Minna. Nigeria

Jamaludin Mohamad Yatim

Civil Engineering, Assoc. Prof.

Azmahani Abdul Aziz

Civil Engineering, Senior Lecturer


Ali, M., Liu, A., Sou, H. and Chouw, N., 2012. Mechanical and dynamic properties of coconut fibre reinforced concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 30: 814–825.

ASTM C1552, 2015, Standard practice for capping concrete masonry units, related units and masonry prisms for compression testing, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM C1583 /C1583M, 2013, Standard test method for tensile strength of concrete surfaces and the bond strength or tensile strength of concrete repair and overlay materials by direct tension (Pull-off method), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM C293 / C293M, 2016, Standard test method for flexural strength of concrete (Using simple beam with center-point loading) ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

Banthia, N., Zanotti, C. and Sappakittipakorn, M., 2014. Sustainable fiber reinforced concrete for repair applications. Construction and Building Materials, 67: 405–412.

Casal, B.B., 1960. Connections between concrete layers with different ages. Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Portugal, pp.1-10

Denarié, E. and Brühwiler, E., 2006. Structural rehabilitations with ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concretes (UHPFRC). Restoration of buildings and monuments, 12(5): 93–108.

Drzal, L.T., Mohanty, A.K. and Misra, M., 2001. Bio-composite materials as alternatives to petroleum-based composites for automotive applications. Magnesium, 40: 1–3.

Filho, R. and Joseph, K., 1999. The use of sisal fibre as reinforcement in cement based composites. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 3(2): 245–256.

Gorst, N.J.S. and Clark, L.A., 2003. Effects of thaumasite on bond strength of reinforcement in concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 25(8): 1089–1094.

Hasan, N.M.S., Sobuz, H.R., Sayed, M.S. and Islam, M.S., 2012. The use of coconut fibre in the production of structural lightweight concrete. Journal of Applied Sciences, 12(9): 831–839.

Kamal, I. B., 2014. Kenaf for biocomposite: an overview. Journal of Science and Technology, 6(2): 41–66.

Kang, J., Park, J., Jung, W. and Keum, M., 2015. Connection between Concrete Layers with Different Strengths. Engineering, 7(7): 365

Lam, T.F. and Jamaludin, M.Y., 2015. Mechanical properties of kenaf fibre reinforced concrete with different fibre content and fibre length. Journal of Asian Concrete Federation, 1(1): 11–21.

Mahjoub, R., Yatim, J.M., Mohd Sam, A. and Hashemi, S.H., 2014. Tensile properties of kenaf fiber due to various conditions of chemical fiber surface modifications. Construction and Building Materials, 55: 103–113.

Momayez, A., Ehsani, M.R., Ramezanianpour, A.A. and Rajaie, H., 2005. Comparison of methods for evaluating bond strength between concrete substrate and repair materials. Cement and Concrete Research, 35(4): 748–757.

Mu, B., Meyer, C. and Shimanovich, S., 2002. Improving the interface bond between fiber mesh and cementitious matrix. Cement and Concrete Research. 32(5): 783-787

Nadgouda, K., 2014. Coconut fibre reinforced concrete. Influence of water up take on interlaminar. Chennai, India, pp. 5–7.

Ogunbode, E.B. Jamaludin, M.Y., Ishak, M.Y., Razavi, M., Razavi, M. (2015). Potential of Kenaf fibre in bio-composite production: A review. Jurnal Teknologi, 77(12): 3–30.

Ogunbode, E.B. Jamaludin M.Y., Ishak, M.Y., Meisam, R., Masoud, R, Norazura, M.A. (2016). Preliminary investigation of kenaf bio fibrous concrete composites. 2nd Int. Conf. Sci. Eng. Soc. Sci. (ICSESS ’16). Univ. Teknol. Malaysia. pp. 248–249.

Parveen, S., Rana, S. and Fangueiro, R., 2012. Natural fiber composites for structural. International Conference on Mechanics of Nano, Micro and Macro Composite Structures, pp. 1–2.

Patnaik, A., 2008. Development, characterization and solid particle erosion response of polyester based hybrid composites. PhD Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India.

Ramaswamy, H.S., Ahuja, B.M. and Krishnamoorthy, S., 1983. Behaviour of concrete reinforced with jute, coir and bamboo fibres. The International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, 5(1), pp.3–13.

Shin, H.-C. and Wan, Z. (2010). Interfacial properties between new and old concretes. Second International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, June 28-30, Ancona, Italy.

Tayeh, B.A., Bakar, B.H.A., Johari, M.A.M. and Lei, Y. (2013a). Evaluation of Bond Strength between Normal Concrete Substrate and Ultra High Performance Fiber Concrete as a Repair Material. Procedia Engineering, 54: 554–563.

Tayeh, B.A., Bakar, B.H.A., Johari, M.A.M. and Voo, Y.L. (2013b). Utilization of Ultra-High Performance Fibre Concrete ( UHPFC ) for Rehabilitation: a Review. Procedia Engineering, 54: 525–538.

The European Cement Association (2014). Activity Report 2014, Brussels.

Ueda, T. and Dai, J. (2005). Interface bond between FRP sheets and concrete substrates: properties, numerical modeling and roles in member behaviour. Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, 7(1): 27–43.

Vajje, S. and Krishna, N.R. (2013). Study On Addition Of The Natural Fibers Into Concrete. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2(11): 213–218.

Yatim, J., Khalid, A. and Mahjoub, R. (2011). Biocomposites for the Construction Materials and Structures. Seminar Embracing Green Technology in Construction - Way Forward. CIDB. Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia, 1–29.