Analysis of Cost of Rework on Time and Cost Performance of Building Construction Projects in Abuja, Nigeria


  • Emmanuel Chidiebere Eze Quantity Surveying Department, Federal University Of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
  • John Ebhohimen Idiake Quantity Surveying Department, Federal University Of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.



Construction project, Cost overrun, Rework, Time overrun, Nigeria


Rework is a menace that leads to undesired and unnecessary loss of efforts, it degrades project cost and schedule performance of construction projects, both at design and construction phases. This study therefore, analyzed the impact of cost of rework on time and cost performance of building construction projects in Nigerian, using selected commercial building project within the country’s capital. A pro forma was adopted for gathering data on rework cost, project cost and time of selected building projects, while structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the likely measures for reducing rework incidences from construction professionals that were involved in the delivery of the identified projects. Regression analysis, relative importance index and Kruskal-Walis test were employed for data analysis. The study revealed a significant relationship between the cost of rework and initial and final project cost of delivering commercial buildings, as an average of 3.53% impact on the initial project cost, 46.60% contribution to cost overrun, and p-value of 0.000 was observed on all assessed projects. For the project delivery time, a significant relationship between the cost of rework and initial and final project duration, as an average of 7.35% impact on the initial delivery time, extra 19 days and p-value of 0.000 was observed on all assessed projects. Team building and education, management commitment, employee involvement, were some of the best possible measures to minimized rework problems.


Abdul-Rahman, H. (1995). The cost of non-conformance during a highway project: A case study. Construction Management and Economics, 13(1):23-32.

Abdul-Rahman, I., Memon, A.H. & Abd-Karim, A.T. (2013). Significant factors causing cost overruns in large construction projects in Malaysia. Journal of Applied Sciences, 13(2), pp. 286-293. http://

Abeku, D. M., Ogunbode, E. B., Salihu,C., Maxwell, S. S. and Kure, M. A. (2016); Projects Management and the effect of Rework on Construction Works: A Case of selected Projects in Abuja Metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Finance and Management in Practice, Vol. 4, No. 1, June 2016.

Ajayi, O. and Oyeyipo, O. (2015); effect of rework on project performance in building project in Nigeria. Internatioanl Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). Vol. 4 issue 02, February-2015.

Alkass S., Mozerolle M., Tribaldos, E. and Harris F. (1995), Computer aided construction delay analysis and claims preparation, Journal of Construction Management and Economics, 13: 335-352.

Al-Khalil, M. and Al-Ghafly, M.A. (1999) Delay in public utility projects in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Project Management, 17(2), 101 – 106.

Al-Tayeb, M. (2008) Critical Success Factors of TQM Implementation on Construction Projects in Gaza Strip. Published MSc thesis. The Islamic University-Gaza.

Alwi, S., Hampson, K. and Mohamed, S. (2002), Non-value adding activities: A comparative study of Indonesian and Australian construction projects, Proceedings of the 10th annual conference of lean construction, Gramado, Brazil, 12 pages.

An Oracle White Paper, (April 2009), “Change Management Best Practices for the Engineering and Construction Industry” Oracle, Primavera.

Avots, I. (1983), Cost-Relevance Analysis for Overrun Control. International Journal of Project Management, 1 (3): 142-148.

Azhar, N., Farooqui,R. U., Ahmed S. M. (2008), Cost Overrun Factors In Construction Industry of Pakistan, First International Conference on Construction In Developing Countries (ICCIDC–I) “Advancing and Integrating Construction Education, Research & Practice” August 4-5, 2008, Karachi, Pakistan.

Burati, J. L., Farrington, J. J., and Ledbetter, W. B. (1992), Causes of uality deviations in design and construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 118 (1): 34–49

Chan, D.W.M. and Kumaraswamy, M.M. (1997), A comparative study of causes of time overruns in Hong Kong construction projects, International Journal of Project Management, 15 (1): 55-63.

Davis, K., Ledbetter, W.B. and Buratti, J.L. (1989), Measuring design and construction quality costs, ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 115 (3): 389–400.

Egan, J. (1998). Rethinking construction. In Aminudin, BA (2006). Exploitation of contract documents for construction project planningand controlling. Published Master of Science thesis, faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia.

Elchaig, T., Boussabinaine A., and Ballal T. (2005) “Critical determinants of construction tendering costs: Quantity surveyors’ standpoint ”, International Journal of Project Management.

Elinwa, AU, and Joshua, M (2001). “Time overrun factors in Nigeria construction industry”, J. Constr. Engr. Mgt., 127(5): 419-25.

Endut, I. R. Akintoye, A. and Kelly J. (2005), Cost and time overruns of projects in Malaysia, Proceedings of the 2nd Scottish Conference for Postgraduate Researchers of the Built and Natural Environment (PRoBE) 16-17 November, Glasgow Caledonian University.

Fellows, R. R.; Liu, A. (2008) Research Methods for Construction, 3rd Edition. Wiley- Blackwell Science, London.

Gunawardena, N.D., Wickremarachchi, M.M.P., & Nismy, R.M. (2004); Costs of Quality in Construction: Can these be reduced through implementation of ISO 9000? Built-Environment-Sri Lanka-Vol. 05, Issue 0 I: 2004

Hwang, B. G., Thomas, S. R., Haas, C. T., and Caldas, C. H. (2009), Measuring the Impact of Rework on Construction Cost Performance, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 135 (3): 187-198.

Josephson, P. E. and Hammarlund, Y. (1999). The causes and costs of defects in construction: A study of seven building projects. Automation in Construction, 8(6), pp. 681–687.

Josephson, P., Larsson, B. and H. Li. (2002). Illustrative benchmarking rework and rework costs in Swedish construction industry. Journal of Management Engineering, Vol 18, issue 2, pp. 76-83

Love, P. E. D. (2002a). The influence of project type and procurement method on rework costs in building construction projects. ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering Management, 128 (1), 18 – 29.

Love, P. E. D. and Li, H. (2000), Quantifying the causes and costs of rework in construction, Construction Management and Economics, 18 (4): 479–490.

Love, P. E. D., Mandal, P. and Li, H. (1999), Determining the causal structure of rework in construction projects, Construction Management and Economics, 17 (4): 505–517.

Love, P. E.D. and Edwards, D. J. (2004a), Determinants of rework in building construction projects, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 11 (4): 259–274

Low, S. P & Yeo, H.K.C (1998) "A construction quality costs quantifying system for the building industry", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 15 Issue: 3, pp.329-349,

Mahamid I.(2016). Analysis of Rework in Residential Building Projects in Palestine. Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, No. 2.pp 197-208.

Marosszeky, M. (2006). Performance Measurement and Visual Feedback for Process Improvement, A Special Invited Lecture presented in the SMILE-SMC 3rd Dissemination Workshop on 11th February 2006, Centre for Infrastructure and Construction Industry Development of The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Meshksar, S. (2012); Cost And Time Impacts Of Reworks In Building A Reinforced Concrete Structure. Master Thesis. North Cyprus, Gazimagusa: Eastern Mediterranean University.

Mezher, T.M. and Tawil , W. (1998) Causes of delays in the construction industry in Lebanon. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 5(3), 252-260.

Moser, C. A., and Kalton, G. (1999). Survey methods in Social Investigation, 2nd Edition. Gower Publishing Company Ltd, Aldershot.

Ng, S.T., Mak, M.Y.M., Skitmore, R.M., Lam, K. C., and Varnam, M. (2001), The predictive ability of Bromilow’s time-cost model, Journal of Construction Management and Economics, 19(2): 165-173.

Odeck, J. (2004), Cost overruns in road construction – what are their sizes and determinants? Transport Policy, 24, 43-53.

Oke, A. E., and Ugoje, O. F. (2013) "Assessment of rework cost of selected building projects in Nigeria", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 30 Issue: 7, pp.799-810, doi: 10.1108/IJQRM-Jul-2011-0103

Okpala, D.C. and Aniekwu, A.N. (1988), Cause of high cost of construction in Nigeria. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE , 114 (2) 223-34.

Oyewobi, L. O., Ibironke, O. T, Ganiyu, B. O. and Ola-Awo, A. W. (2011a): Evaluating rework cost- A study of selected building projects in Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning Vol. 4(3), pp. 147-151, March 2011.

Palaneeswaran, E. (2006)." Reducing Rework to enhance Project Performance Levels", Proceedings of the one day Seminar on "Recent Developments in Project Management in Hong Kong."

Peter, H., Pascale, C. and Todd, L. (2010): Barriers and benefits of quality management in the construction industry: An empirical study. Total Quality Management. Vol. 21, No. 9, September 2010, 953 – 969

Roberts, R. (1991), Quality does not Cost-it pays, Australian Construction Law Report. 10(4), pp 137-144.

Saidu, I. and Shakantu, W.M.W., (2016a). A Study of the Relationship between Material W aste and Cost Overruns in the Construction Industry. The 9th CIDB Postgraduate Conference Cape Town, South Africa. Emerging trends in construction organisational practices and project-management knowledge area. Edited Windapo, A.O., 124-134, Feb, 2-4, 2016.

Saidu, I. and Shakantu, W. M. W (2016b). A Conceptual Framework and a Mathematical Equation for Managing Construction-Material Waste and Cost Overruns. World Academy of Science, Engineering & technology. International Journal of Behavioural, Education, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 10(2): 555-561

Saidu, I. and Shakantu, W. M. W (2016c). The contributions of Material Waste to project-cost Overrun in Abuja, Nigeria. Acta Structilia, 23 (1), 99-113

Simpeh, E. K (2012). An Analysis of The Causes And Impact Of Rework In Construction Projects. A Thesis submitted Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.

Simpeh, E.K., Ndihokubwayo, R., Love, P. E.D. (2012), Evaluating the direct and indirect costs of rework. Selected Works, Cape Peninsula University of Technology.ICEC2012-72.

Wasfy, M.A.F (2010). Severity and Impact of Rework, a Case Study of a Residential Commercial Tower Project in the Eastern Province-KSA. Master Thesis. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals.




How to Cite

Chidiebere Eze, E., & Idiake, J. E. (2018). Analysis of Cost of Rework on Time and Cost Performance of Building Construction Projects in Abuja, Nigeria. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 5(1).