Barriers to effective use of CAD and BIM in architecture education in Nigeria


  • Joy Joshua Maina Department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria



Architecture, Barriers, BIM, CAD, Education.


This study investigated barriers to the effective use of CAD/BIM in response to the dearth of data from Nigerian schools of architecture relative to information obtained from practice. This is important to bridge the gap between skill sets required in practice and those obtained from architecture graduates. Objectives of the study were to establish barriers that influence effective use of CAD/BIM tools in Nigerian schools of architecture as well as to identify means of addressing these barriers within the curriculum from the perspective of students. A mixed methodology was employed via questionnaire responses from 64 MSc students at the department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria as well as suggestions for improvement. Quantitative data were analysed in SPSS v. 21 for means (M) and Relative importance Index (RII). Suggestions proffered by respondents were assessed using content analysis. Results reveal that requirements for high computer specifications (RII=0.92), expensive cost of computers (0.91), requirements for intensive training (0.81), inadequate integration within the curriculum (0.81), lack of steady power supply (0.77) and time to master skills (0.76) were the most important barriers to effective CAD/BIM use in architecture education. Overall, government and institutional related barriers recorded the highest means (M 3.68 each). The study recommends government action via policies supporting clear BIM standards, local manufacture and assembly of high-tech computers to mitigate importation costs as well as added funding to higher institutions to augment research, power supply and ICT facilities. At departmental level, CAD/BIM tutorials should be integrated within studio sessions as seminars from 200L. At 400L and MSc levels, studio should support collaboration with students from other allied professionals. Recruitment requirements in future also need to include CAD/BIM proficiency to improve quality of teaching staff and learning experience of students.


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How to Cite

Maina, J. J. (2018). Barriers to effective use of CAD and BIM in architecture education in Nigeria. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 5(3).