Dual Formal and Informal Transport Modes towards Quasi-Seamless Transit in a Developing City


  • Ariva Sugandi Permana Department of Urban and Regional Planning Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6518-1565
  • Gobi Krishna Sinniah Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Rizon Pamardhi-Utomo Urban & Regional Planning Program Faculty of Engineering Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Rufia Andisetyana Putri Urban and Regional Planning Program, Faculty of Engineering Universitas Sebelas Maret




Informal transport, formal transport, duality, continuum, quasi-seamless transit.


Dual formal and informal transport modes have been complementing one another in Bandung City for more than four decades now. The issue appears due to inability of formal transport to provide adequate services to the citizens. However, this accompaniment has brought Bandung City to a quasi-seamless transportation process as both transport modes play their roles as a continuum. Amid insufficient public transportation system in Bandung City, the informal transport modes have properly paired their formal transport counterparts. This study was conducted in Bandung City, Indonesia, by profiling the transportation users, observing the characteristics of both formal and informal transports, and acquiring the relevant secondary information at city and national levels. The study found that within the issue of appropriateness of few modes of informal transport such as becaks and ojeks, they have shown their contribution to the state of quasi-seamless transit process in the city as well as their impacts to reduce the CO2 emission in comparison to formal fossil fuel-based transportation.


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How to Cite

Permana, A. S., Sinniah, G. K., Pamardhi-Utomo, R., & Putri, R. A. (2018). Dual Formal and Informal Transport Modes towards Quasi-Seamless Transit in a Developing City. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 5(3). https://doi.org/10.11113/ijbes.v5.n3.307