A Non-Accident-Based Spatial Method to Analyse Pedestrian-Vehicular Conflict

Lakshika Meetiyagoda


Due to the tremendous increase in automobile transportation and heavy pedestrian movements in developing countries, roads are becoming deadlier year by year. It is acknowledged that context specific research on pedestrian-vehicular conflict are urgently needed considering the built environment characteristics. Therefore, this paper aims to (1) redefine pedestrian-vehicular conflict that would enable to explain micro- and macro-built environment-related variables in a particular context, and (2) develop a methodology that could be used in a place where comprehensive data are limitedly available for a spatial analysis. This research redefines pedestrian-vehicular conflict as “the pedestrian contact with potentially harmful vehicular traffic”, rather than accidents. Based on this definition devise a methodology. The primary data collection method adopted to collect causal factors related to spatial data was, photographs. The spatial data were analysed by using QGIS platform. The pedestrian volume models are constructed by a space syntax framework and correlated with a composite choropleth map to get the potential conflicting points. A perception survey was carried out to confirm the spatial analysis. The research findings indicate that the methodology developed can be used to identify built environment factors related risk areas spatially. Consequently, it is possible to fill the research gap by introducing a low-cost, widely applicable, impartial, spatial and perception-based methodology that assesses the built environmental characteristics in relation to pedestrian-vehicular conflict. This research would support the urban planners and designers, allowing them to comprehend the risk related nature of pedestrian-vehicular conflict in their urban planning schemes before intervening with plans and designs


Accidents; built environment; spatial analysis; space syntax; photographs

Full Text:



Acock, A. C. (2008). A Gentle Introduction to Stata (2nd ed.). College Station, Texas. Stata Press (USA).

Anderson, T. (2007). Comparison Of Spatial Methods For Measuring Road Accident ‘Hotspots’: A Case Study of London. Journal of Maps. 3(1): 55-63.

Bandara, A., Meetiyagoda, L. and Munasinghe, J. (2009). Spatial Configuration As A Determinant Of The Activity Pattern: The Case Of Two Small Cities In Sri Lanka. Bhumi. The Planning Research Journal. 2(2): 25-40

Bandara, A., and Munasinghe, J. (2007). Evolution of a City: A Space Syntax Approach To Explain The Spatial Dynamics of Colombo. In Proceeding (s) of 9th International Congress of Asian Planning Schools Congress.

Ben-Joseph, E. (1995) Changing the Residential Street Scene: Adapting The Shared Street (Woonerf) Concept To The Suburban Environment. Journal of the American Planning Association. 61(4): 504-515.

Braddock, M., Lapidus, G., Cromley, E., Cromley, R., Burke, G. and Banco, L. (1994). Using a Geographic Information System To Understand Child Pedestrian Injury. American Journal of Public Health. 84(7):1158-1161.

Baran, P.K., Rodríguez, D.A. and Khattak, A.J. (2008). Space Syntax And Walking In A New Urbanist And Suburban Neighbourhoods. Journal of Urban Design. 13(1): 5-28.

Bernard, H.R., Wutich, A. and Ryan, G.W. (2016). Analyzing Qualitative Data: Systematic Approaches. SAGE publications.

Black, J. A., and Westerman, H.L. (1989). Pedestrian/Vehicle Conflict in The Main Street Of Country Towns. University of New South Wales Press (Australia).

Brison, R.J., Wicklund, K. and Mueller, B.A. (1988). Fatal Pedestrian Injuries To Young Children: A Different Pattern Of Injury. American Journal of Public Health. 78(7): 793-795.

Bunn, F., Collier, T., Frost, C., Ker, K., Steinbach, R., Roberts, I. and Wentz, R. (2003). Area‐Wide Traffic Calming For Preventing Traffic Related Injuries. The Cochrane Library.

Chainey, S., Tompson, L. and Uhlig, S. (2008). The Utility Of Hotspot Mapping For Predicting Spatial Patterns Of Crime. Security Journal. 21(1-2): 4-28.

Clifton, K.J., Burnier, C.V. and Akar, G. (2009). Severity Of Injury Resulting From Pedestrian–Vehicle Crashes: What Can We Learn From Examining The Built Environment?. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 14(6): 425-436.

Clifton, K.J. and Kreamer-Fults, K. (2007) An Examination Of The Environmental Attributes Associated With Pedestrian–Vehicular Crashes Near Public Schools. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 39(4): 708-715.

Cloutier, M., Lachapelle, U., d’Amours-Ouellet, A., Bergeron, J., Lord, S. and Torres, J. (2017). “Outta My Way!” Individual And Environmental Correlates Of Interactions Between Pedestrians And Vehicles During Street Crossings. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 104: 36-45.

Crampton, J.W. (2002). Interactivity Types In Geographic Visualization. Cartography and Geographic Information Science. 29(2): 85-98.

Dai, D., Taquechel, E., Steward, J. and Strasser, S. (2010). The Impact Of Built Environment On Pedestrian Crashes And The Identification Of Crash Clusters On An Urban University Campus. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. 11 (3): 294.

DiMaggio, C. and Li, G. (2011). Roadway Characteristics And Paediatric Pedestrian Injury. Epidemiologic Reviews. 34(1): 46-56.

Donroe, J., Tincopa, M., Gilman, R.H., Brugge, D. and Moore, D.A.J. (2008). Pedestrian Road Traffic Injuries In Urban Peruvian Children And Adolescents: Case Control Analyses Of Personal And Environmental Risk Factors. PLoS One. 3(9): 3166.

Dumbaugh, E. and Li, W. (2010), “Designing for the Safety Of Pedestrians, Cyclists, And Motorists In Urban Environments”, Journal of the American Planning Association. 77(1):69-88

Eluru, N., Bhat, C.R. and Hensher, D.A. (2008). A Mixed Generalized Ordered Response Model For Examining Pedestrian And Bicyclist Injury Severity Level In Traffic Crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 40(3): 1033-1054.

Ewing, R., Handy, S., Brownson, R.C., Clemente, O. and Winston, E. (2006). Identifying and Measuring Urban Design Qualities Related To Walkability. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 3(s1): S223-S240.

Gallin, N. (2001). Quantifying Pedestrian Friendliness--Guidelines For Assessing Pedestrian Level Of Service. Road & Transport Research. 10(1): 47.

Gerring, J. (2004). What is a case study and what is it good for?. American Political Science Review 98(2): 341-354.

Gil, J., Varoudis, T., Karimi, K. and Penn, A. (2015). The Space Syntax Toolkit: Integrating Depthmapx And Exploratory Spatial Analysis Workflows in QGIS. In SSS 2015-10th International Space Syntax Symposium, 10. Space Syntax Laboratory, The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL (University College London).

Hajdu, J. C. (1988). Pedestrian malls in West Germany: Perceptions of Their Role And Stages In Their Development. Journal of the American Planning Association. 54(3): 325-335.

Hamilton-Baillie, B. (2008). Shared Space: Reconciling People, Places And Traffic. Built Environment. 34(2):161-181.

Hsieh, H. and Shannon, S.E. (2005). Three Approaches To Qualitative Content Analysis. Qualitative Health Research. 15(9): 1277-1288.

Hydén, C. (1987). The Development Of A Method For Traffic Safety Evaluation: The Swedish Traffic Conflicts Technique. Bulletin Lund Institute of Technology, Department 70.

Jiang, B. and Claramunt, C. (2002). Integration of Space Syntax Into GIS: New Perspectives For Urban Morphology. Transactions in GIS. 6(3): 295-309.

Kadali, B.R., Rathi, N. and Perumal, V. (2014). Evaluation of Pedestrian Mid-Block Road Crossing Behaviour Using Artificial Neural Network. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English edition). 1(2): 111-119.

Khan, T.H., Isah, A.D., Anjomshoaa, E. and Sabri, S. (2015) Users’ Perceptions On Pedestrian Prioritized Neighborhoods: A Study On Terrace Row Housing Estates in Malaysia. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability 2(1): 29-38

Khder, H.M., Mousavi, S.M. and Khan, T.H. (2016) Impact of Street’s Physical Elements On Walkability: A Case Of Mawlawi Street in Sulaymaniyah, Iraq. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability. 3(1): 18-26

Kim, Y.O. and Penn, A. (2004). Linking the Spatial Syntax Of Cognitive Maps To The Spatial Syntax Of The Environment. Environment and Behavior. 36(4): 483-504.

McMahon, P.J. (2002). An Analysis Of Factors Contributing To" Walking Along Roadway" Crashes: Research Study And Guidelines For Sidewalks And Walkways. 1. DIANE Publishing.

Meetiyagoda, L. (2018). Pedestrian safety in Kandy Heritage City, Sri Lanka: Lessons from World Heritage Cities. Sustainable Cities and Society 38: 301-308

Meetiyagoda, L. and Munasinghe, J. (2016). Towards Great Streets: An Empirical Approach To Study A Streetscape. Bhumi. the Planning Research Journal 1(2): 34-49

Moudon, A., Lin, L., Hurvitz, L. and Reeves, P. (2008). Risk of Pedestrian Collision Occurrence: Case Control Study Of Collision Locations On State Routes in King County and Seattle, Washington. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2073: 25-38.

Lerman, Y., Rofè, Y. and Omer, I. (2014). Using Space Syntax To Model Pedestrian Movement In Urban Transportation Planning. Geographical Analysis. 46(4):392-410.

Omer, I. and Kaplan, N. (2017). Using Space Syntax And Agent-Based Approaches For Modeling Pedestrian Volume At The Urban Scale. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. 64:57-67.

Osama, A. and Sayed, T. (2017). Macro-Spatial Approach For Evaluating The Impact Of Socio-Economics, Land Use, Built Environment, And Road Facility On Pedestrian Safety. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 44(12): 1036-1044.

Ossenbruggen, P.J., Pendharkar, J. and Ivan, J. (2001). Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 33(4): 485-498.

Parks, J.R. and Schofer, J.L. (2006). Characterizing Neighbourhood Pedestrian Environments With Secondary Data. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 11(4): 250-263.

Penn, A. (2003). Space syntax And Spatial Cognition: Or Why The Axial Line?. Environment and Behaviour. 35(1): 30-65.

Perera, L.A.S.R. and Amin, A.T.M.N. (1996). Accommodating the Informal Sector: A Strategy For Urban Environmental Management. Journal of Environmental Management. 46(1): 3-15.

Pulugurtha, S.S., Krishnakumar, V.K. and Nambisan, S.S. (2007). New Methods To Identify And Rank High Pedestrian Crash Zones: An Illustration. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 39(4): 800-811.

Raford, N. and Ragland, D.R. (2003). Space Syntax: An Innovative Pedestrian Volume Modeling Tool For Pedestrian Safety, Institute Of Transportation Studies. UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center, UC Berkeley Google Scholar.

Rahaman, K.B., Ohmori, N. and Harata, N. (2005). Evaluation of the Roadside Walkway Environment of Dhaka City. In Proceeding of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies. 5:1751-1766.

Ranasinghe, G., Amarawickrama, S., Rathnayake, R., Randeniya, T., and Rathnasiri, S. (2015). A Model For Assessing The Level Of Walkability In Urban Neighborhoods in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability. 2(4): 292-300

Robertson, K. A. (1993) Pedestrianization Strategies For Downtown Planners: Skywalks Versus Pedestrian Malls. Journal of the American Planning Association. 59(3): 361-370.

Rytkönen, M.J.P. (2004). Not All Maps Are Equal: GIS And Spatial Analysis In Epidemiology. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 63(1): 9-24.

Sarkar, S. and Andreas, M. (2004). Drivers' Perception Of Pedestrians' Rights And Walking Environments. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 1878: 75-82.

Schneider, R.J., Ryznar, R.M. and Khattak, A.J. (2004). An Accident Waiting To Happen: A Spatial Approach To Proactive Pedestrian Planning. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 36(2):193-211.

Schuurman, N., Cinnamon, J., Crooks, V.A. and Hameed, S.M. (2009). Pedestrian Injury And The Built Environment: An Environmental Scan Of Hotspots. BMC Public Health. 9(1):233.

Sepe, M. (2009). PlaceMaker Method: Planning ‘Walkability’ By Mapping Place Identity. Journal of Urban Design. 14(4): 463-487.

Shepherd, M., Austin, P. and Chambers, J. (2010). Driveway Runover, The Influence Of The Built Environment: A Case Control Study. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 46(12): 760-767.

Southworth, M. (2005). Designing the Walkable City. Journal of Urban Planning and Development. 131(4): 246-257.

Steenberghen, T.T., Dufays, I.T., and Flahaut, B. (2004). Intra-Urban Location And Clustering Of Road Accidents Using GIS: A Belgian Example. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. 18(2): 169-181.

Steinmetz, G. (2004). Odious Comparisons: Incommensurability, The Case Study, And “Small N's” In Sociology. Sociological Theory. 22(3): 371-400.

Stoker, P., Adkins, A. and Ewing, R. (2017). Pedestrian Safety And Public Health. In Walking: Connecting Sustainable Transport with Health. 211-229.

Swanborn, P. (2010). Case Study Research: What, Why And How?. Sage Publications

Tobler, W.R. (1973). Choropleth Maps Without Class Intervals?. Geographical Analysis. 5(3): 262-265.

Ukkusuri, S., Hasan, S. and Aziz, H. (2011). Random Parameter Model Used To Explain Effects Of Built-Environment Characteristics On Pedestrian Crash Frequency. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2237: 98-106.

Wier, M., Weintraub, J., Humphreys, E.H., Seto, E. and Bhatia, R. (2009). An Area-Level Model Of Vehicle-Pedestrian Injury Collisions With Implications For Land Use And Transportation Planning. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 41(1): 137-145.

Zaman, M., Sultan, Z., Fard, M., Siyaka, A. and Pung, J.C. (2017) An Assessment Of Public Transport Facility In Johor Bahru: A Case Study In Taman Ungku Tun Aminah Area, Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru Tengah, Malaysia. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability 4(2): 71-80

Zegeer, C.V. and Bushell, M. (2012). Pedestrian Crash Trends And Potential Countermeasures From Around The World. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 44(1): 3-11.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.11113/ijbes.v6.n2.341


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Penerbit UTM Press

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/legalcode


Copyright © 2018 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.

Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.