• Norraisha Md Sabtu Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Mohamad Hafis Izran Ishak Department of Control and Mechatronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Johor, Malaysia
  • Nurul Hawani Idris Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Johor, Malaysia.



Jackfruit, Pest & Plant Disease, Abiotic Factor, Spatial Modelling


Jackfruit is identified as targeted produced for premium fruit and vegetable (EPP 7). Meanwhile in Johor, jackfruit is the third biggest fruit produced in 2016. Jackfruit contains a lot of benefits which certainly good for living things and have been used in various sector such as medicine, food, anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant, antifungal effect, immunomodulatory effect and else. However, the existence of pests and diseases have threatened the productivity of jackfruit plant particularly in tropical countries including Malaysia. There are many factors that can affect the occurrence of pests and plant diseases of jackfruit such as shoot borers, bark borers, mealy bug and scale insects, blossoms and fruit rots and bacterial die-back. Several studies have been devoted to model the plant pests and diseases epidemiology, though the contexts that focus in tropical environment and jackfruit plant are limited. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss abiotic factors and spatial methods that have been used to define dispersal pattern and relationship between abiotic factors including major climatic variables with plant pests and diseases occurrence data, particularly in tropical climate. This paper could be used as a basis to understand the epidemiological models in combating pest and plant disease and to support towards the effective management of jackfruit pests and diseases in tropical countries, particularly Malaysia.


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How to Cite

Md Sabtu, N., Ishak, M. H. I., & Idris, N. H. (2019). THE SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF JACKFRUIT PEST AND DISEASES: A REVIEW. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 6(1-2), 169–175.