Content Validation of the User Attitudinal Component and Factors in Green Building


  • Izran Sarrazin Mohammad Department of Real Estate, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Tsau Kar Yen Department of Real Estate, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Rohaya Abdul Jalil Department of Real Estate, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.



Green Building, User Attitude Component and Factor, Content Validation


The green building performance gap has been well acknowledged in building industry and one of the contributors to these issues is the behaviour of users in the building. One of the element that influences the behaviour of users is the attitude of the user towards the building environment. The consideration of the human aspects especially the user attitudinal component and factor is essential as an approach in improving the building performance. This paper aims to identify the user attitudinal component and factor from the literature and to validate the research instrument by using the content validation method. The procedure of content validity include the conceptualization and development of instrument throughout an extensive literature review and to validate the relevance of the user attitudinal component and factors to be considered in green buildings. Three user attitudinal components and seventeen factors were developed from the extensive review of the literature. Ten experts were chosen to appraise the instrument of research by using a quantitative content validation. Fifteen items were accepted as relevant to the study within the accepted range and two items were eliminated from the research instrument. The study’s output allows the building industry a new insight on what user attitudinal aspect to be considered and integrated when dealing in the development of green building. The output of this study greatly benefits the building designers and managers when designing, constructing and managing green buildings.


Adler, M., and Ziglio, E. (1996) Gazing into the Oracle: The Delphi Method and Its Application to Social Policy and Public Health. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London.

Adrian Leaman, (1995) "Dissatisfaction and Office Productivity", Facilities, 13(2): 13 – 19.

Altomonte, S., & Schiavon, S. (2013). Occupant satisfaction in LEED and non-LEED certified buildings. Building and Environment, 68: 66-76.

Anderson, K. (2015). Investigating the Role of Occupants, Complex Contextual Factors, and Norms on Residential Energy Consumption.

Aye, L., Charters, W. W. S., Chiazor, M., & Robinson, J. R. W. (2005). Evaluation of Occupant Perception And Satisfaction In Two New Office Buildings. Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Future–A Challenge for a Post Carbon World ANZSES2005.

Baldi, S., Korkas, C. D., Lv, M., & Kosmatopoulos, E. B. (2018). Automating Occupant-Building Interaction Via Smart Zoning Of Thermostatic Loads: A Switched Self-Tuning Approach. Applied Energy. 231: 1246-1258.

Balvedi, B. F., Ghisi, E., & Lamberts, R. (2018). A Review Of Occupant Behaviour In Residential Buildings. Energy and Buildings.

Banaei, M., Yazdanfar, A., Nooreddin, M., & Yoonessi, A. (2015). Enhancing Urban Trails Design Quality By Using Electroencephalography Device. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 201: 386-396.

Banerjee, M., Capozzoli, M., McSweeney, L., & Sinha, D. (1999). Beyond Kappa: A Review Of Interrater Agreement Measures. The Canadian Journal of Statistics/La Revue Canadienne de Statistique. 3-23.

Barzegar, Z., & Heidari, S. (2014). Investigating the Relation Between Built Area, Occupant Number And Energy Consumption In First Modern Residential Buildings (Case Study: 1970s Houses In The Semi-Arid Climate of Shiraz, Iran). Desert. 19(2): 121-130.

Bayer, M., Rossi, V., Vanlessen, N., Grass, A., Schacht, A., & Pourtois, G. (2017). Independent Effects Of Motivation And Spatial Attention In The Human Visual Cortex. Social Cognitive And Affective Neuroscience. 12(1): 146-156.

Bennan, P.F. (1992). The Kappa Statistic For Establishing Interrater Reliability In Secondary Analysis Of Qualitative Data. Research in Nursing and Health. 15: 153-158.

Berglund, B., & Gidlöf, A. G. (2000). Relationships Between Occupant Personality And The Sick Building Syndrome Explored. Indoor Air. 10(3): 152-169.

Blay, K., Agyekum, K., & Opoku, A. (2019). Actions, Attitudes And Beliefs Of Occupants In Managing Dampness In Buildings. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation. 37(1): 42-53.

Brown, Z. B. (2009). Occupant Comfort And Engagement In Green Buildings: Examining The Effects Of Knowledge, Feedback And Workplace Culture (Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia).

Brown, Z., & Cole, R. J. (2009). Influence of Occupants' Knowledge On Comfort Expectations And Behaviour. Building Research & Information. 37(3): 227-245.

Bylinskii, Z., DeGennaro, E. M., Rajalingham, R., Ruda, H., Zhang, J., & Tsotsos, J. K. (2015). Towards the Quantitative Evaluation Of Visual Attention Models. Vision Research. 116: 258-268.

Carmines, E.G. and Zeller, R.A. (1979). Reliability and Validity Assessment, Sage publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Carpino, C., Mora, D., Arcuri, N., & De Simone, M. (2017). Behavioral Variables And Occupancy Patterns In The Design And Modeling of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings. In Building Simulation. 10(6): 875-888. Tsinghua University Press.

Chang, C., Zhu, N., & Shang, J. (2017). The Study Of Occupant Behavior Analysis Of Inner Mongolia In Regard To Heating Energy Consumption. Procedia Engineering, 205: 915-922.

Chen, S., Yang, W., Yoshino, H., Levine, M. D., Newhouse, K., & Hinge, A. (2015). Definition of Occupant Behavior In Residential Buildings And Its Application To Behavior Analysis In Case Studies. Energy and Buildings, 104: 1-13.

Choo, H., Nasar, J. L., Nikrahei, B., & Walther, D. B. (2017). Neural Codes Of Seeing Architectural Styles. Scientific Reports. 7: 40201.

Cicchetti, D.V. (1984). On a Model For Assessing The Security Of Infantile Attachment: Issues Of Observer Reliability And Validity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Cambridge University Press. 7(1): 149-150.

Davis, L.L. (1992). Instrument Review: Getting The Most From Your Panel Of Experts. Applied Nursing Research. 5: 194–197.

Davies, M., & Oreszczyn, T. (2012). The Unintended Consequences Of Decarbonising The Built Environment: A UK Case Study. Energy And Buildings. 46: 80-85.

Day, J. K., & Gunderson, D. E. (2015). Understanding High Performance Buildings: The Link Between Occupant Knowledge Of Passive Design Systems, Corresponding Behaviors, Occupant Comfort And Environmental Satisfaction. Building and Environment. 84: 114-124.

Delgado-Rico, E., Carrctero-Dios, H. and Ruch, W. (2012). Content Validity Evidences In Test Development: An Applied Perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology. 12(3): 449-459

Delzendeh, E., Wu, S., Lee, A., & Zhou, Y. (2017). The Impact Of Occupants’ Behaviours On Building Energy Analysis: A Research Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 80: 1061-1071.

DeVon, H. A., Block, M. E., Moyle-Wright, P., Ernst, D. M., Hayden, S. J., Lazzara, D. J., Kostas-Polston, E. (2007). A Psychometric Toolbox For Testing Validity And Reliability. Journal Of Nursing Scholarship. 39(2): 155-164.

De Wilde, P. (2014). The Gap Between Predicted And Measured Energy Performance Of Buildings: A Framework For Investigation. Automation in Construction. 41: 40-49.

D’Oca, S., Chen, C. F., Hong, T., & Belafi, Z. (2017). Synthesizing Building Physics With Social Psychology: An Interdisciplinary Framework For Context And Occupant Behavior In Office Buildings. Energy Research & Social Science. 34: 240-251.

Durmaz, Y. (2014). The Impact Of Psychological Factors On Consumer Buying Behavior And An Empirical Application in Turkey.

Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The Psychology Of Attitudes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.

Fabi, V., Corgnati, S. P., Andersen, R. V., Filippi, M., & Olesen, B. W. (2011). Effect Of Occupant Behaviour Related Influencing Factors On Final Energy End Uses In Buildings. Proceedings of the Climamed, 11.

Fabi, V., Spigliantini, G., & Corgnati, S. P. (2017). Insights on Smart Home Concept And Occupants’ Interaction With Building Controls. Energy Procedia. 111: 759-769.

Feng, X., Yan, D., & Hong, T. (2015). Simulation of Occupancy In Buildings. Energy and Buildings. 87: 348-359.

Fitoz, I., & Berkin, G. (2007). Space, Light And Beliefs The Use Of Daylighting In Churches And Mosques. Arkitekt. 04-05: 12-24.

Fleiss, J.L. (1981). Measuring Nominal Scale Agreement Among Many Raters. Psychological Bulletin, American Psychological Association, 76(5): 378.

Fried, C. (2014). Where Design Meets Occupant Engagement: Studying the Importance of Occupant Engagement for Green Buildings, LEED and Pomona College.

Gao, P. X., & Keshav, S. (2013). SPOT: A Smart Personalized Office Thermal Control System. In Proceedings Of The Fourth International Conference On Future Energy Systems. 237-246. ACM.

Gene-Harn, L., Keumala, N. I. M., & Ghafar, N. A. (2016). Office Occupants’ Mood and Preference of Task Ambient Lighting in the Tropics. In MATEC Web of Conferences. 66: 00031. EDP Sciences.

Gilbert, G.E. and Prion, S. (2016). Making Sense Of Methods And Measurement: Lawshe’s Content Validity Index. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 12(12): 530-531.

Gou, Z., & Siu-Yu Lau, S. (2013). Post-Occupancy Evaluation Of The Thermal Environment In A Green Building. Facilities. 31(7/8): 357-371.

Grant, J.S., & Davis, L.T. (1997). Selection and Use Of Content Experts In Instrument Development. Research in Nursing & Health. 20: 269–274.

Graetz, K. A. (2006). The Psychology Of Learning Environments. Educause Review. 41(6): 60-75.

Guggenheim, M. (2009). Building Memory: Architecture, Networks And Users. Memory Studies. 2(1): 39-53.

Gupta, R., & Chandiwala, S. (2010). Understanding Occupants: Feedback Techniques For Large-Scale Low-Carbon Domestic Refurbishments. Building Research & Information. 38(5): 530-548.

Hansen, A. R., Gram-Hanssen, K., & Knudsen, H. N. (2018). How Building Design And Technologies Influence Heat-Related Habits. Building Research & Information. 46(1): 83-98.

Harish, V. S. K. V., & Kumar, A. (2016). A Review On Modeling And Simulation Of Building Energy Systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 56: 1272-1292.

Hatcher, T., and Colton, S. (2007). Using the Internet to Improve HRD Research: The Case of the Web-based Delphi Research Technique to Achieve Content Validity of an HRD-oriented Measurement. Journal of European Industrial Training. 31(7): 570-587.

Hauge, Å. L., Thomsen, J., & Berker, T. (2011). User Evaluations Of Energy Efficient Buildings: Literature Review And Further Research. Advances in Building Energy Research. 5(1): 109-127.

Harish, V. S. K. V., & Kumar, A. (2016). A Review On Modeling And Simulation Of Building Energy Systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 56: 1272-1292.

Haynes, S. N., Richard, D. C. S., & Kubany, E. S. (1995). Content Validityin Psychological Assessment: A Functional Approach To Concepts Andmethods. Psychological Assessment. 7: 238–247.

Hellwig, R. T. (2015). Perceived Control In Indoor Environments: A Conceptual Approach. Building Research & Information. 43(3): 302-315.

Heydarian, A., Carneiro, J. P., Gerber, D., & Becerik-Gerber, B. (2015). Immersive Virtual Environments, Understanding The Impact Of Design Features And Occupant Choice Upon Lighting For Building Performance. Building and Environmen. 89: 217-228.

Hinkin, T.R. (1998). A brief Tutorial On The Development Of Measures For Use In Survey Questionnaires. Organizational Research Methods, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1(1): 104-121.

Hume, D. (2012). Emotions and Moods. Organizational Behavior, 258-297.

Jahncke, H., Hygge, S., Halin, N., Green, A. M., & Dimberg, K. (2011). Open-Plan Office Noise: Cognitive Performance And Restoration. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 31(4): 373-382.

Jamaludin, N. M., Mahyuddin, N., & Akashah, F. W. (2017). Assessment On Indoor Environmental Quality (Ieq) With The Application Of Potted Plants In The Classroom: Case Of University Malaya. Journal of Design and Built Environment, 17(2): 1-15.

Jazizadeh, F., Ghahramani, A., Becerik-Gerber, B., Kichkaylo, T., & Orosz, M. (2014). User-Led Decentralized Thermal Comfort Driven HVAC Operations For Improved Efficiency In Office Buildings. Energy and Buildings. 70: 398-410.

Janda, K. (2011). Buildings Don’t Use Energy: People Do. Architectural Science Review. 54: 15-22.

Khalil, N., Husin, H. N., Wahab, L. A., Kamal, K. S., & Mahat, N. (2011). Performance Evaluation of Indoor Environment towards Sustainability for Higher Educational Buildings. Online Submission.

Kolvir, H. R., & Domola, H. M. (2015). The Study Of Environmental Psychology In Tall Buildings With Sustainable Architecture. Approach. Architecture Research. 5(3): 102-105.

Kulatunga, U., Amaratunga, D., Haigh, R., & Rameezdeen, R. (2006). Attitudes And Perceptions Of Construction Workforce On Construction Waste in Sri Lanka. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal. 17(1): 57-72.

Küller, R., Ballal, S., Laike, T., Mikellides, B., & Tonello, G. (2006). The Impact Of Light And Colour On Psychological Mood: A Cross-Cultural Study Of Indoor Work Environments. Ergonomics. 49(14): 1496-1507.

Küller, R., Mikellides, B., & Janssens, J. (2009). Color, arousal, and performance—A comparison of three experiments. Color Research & Application: Endorsed by Inter‐Society Color Council, The Colour Group (Great Britain), Canadian Society for Color, Color Science Association of Japan, Dutch Society for the Study of Color, The Swedish Colour Centre Foundation, Colour Society of Australia. Centre Français de la Couleur, 34(2): 141-152.

Lallanne, D. (2016). Human-Building Interaction In The Smart Living Lab. In Future Of Human-Building Interaction Workshop, 34rd ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2016).

Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The Measurement Of Observer Agreement For Categorical Data. Biometrics, 159-174.

Langevin, J., Wen, J., & Gurian, P. L. (2015). Simulating The Human-Building Interaction: Development And Validation Of An Agent-Based Model Of Office Occupant Behaviors. Building and Environment, 88: 27-45.

Larsen, T. S., Knudsen, H. N., Kanstrup, A. M., Christiansen, E. T., Gram-Hanssen, K., Mosgaard, M., & Rose, J. (2010). Occupants Influence on the Energy Consumption of Danish Domestic Buildings: State Of The Art.

Lazarova-Molnar, S., & Shaker, H. R. (2016). A Conceptual Framework for Occupant-Centered Building Management Decision Support System. In Intelligent Environments, 436-445.

Lee, S., Karava, P., Tzempelikos, A., & Bilionis, I. (2019). Inference of thermal preference profiles for personalized thermal environments with actual building occupants. Building and Environment. 148: 714-729.

Lee, S., & Wohn, K. (2016). Occupants’ Perceptions of Amenity and Efficiency for Verification of Spatial Design Adequacy. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health. 13(1): 128.

Lin, B., Liu, Y., Wang, Z., Pei, Z., & Davies, M. (2016). Measured Energy Use And Indoor Environment Quality In Green Office Buildings in China. Energy and Buildings. 129: 9-18.

Lynn, M.R. (1986). Determination and Quantification of Content Validity: Nursing Research, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.

Mansour, O. E., & Radford, S. K. (2014). Green Building Perception Matrix, A Theoretical Framework. In Proceedings of the Annual Architectural Research Symposium in Finland. 40-52.

Martinaitis, V., Zavadskas, E. K., Motuzienė, V., & Vilutienė, T. (2015). Importance Of Occupancy Information When Simulating Energy Demand Of Energy Efficient House: A Case Study. Energy and Buildings. 101: 64-75.

McHugh, M.L. (2012). Interrater reliability: the Kappa statistic. Biochemia Medica. 22(3): 276-282.

Menezes, A. C., Cripps, A., Bouchlaghem, D., & Buswell, R. (2012). Predicted vs. Actual Energy Performance Of Non-Domestic Buildings: Using Post-Occupancy Evaluation Data To Reduce The Performance Gap. Applied Energy. 97: 355-364.

Monfared, I. G., & Sharples, S. (2011). Occupants’ Perceptions And Expectations Of A Green Office Building: A Longitudinal Case Study. Architectural Science Review. 54(4): 344-355.

Mulville, M., Jones, K., Huebner, G., & Powell-Greig, J. (2017). Energy-Saving Occupant Behaviours In Offices: Change Strategies. Building Research & Information. 45(8): 861-874.

Naspi, F., Arnesano, M., Stazi, F., D’Orazio, M., & Revel, G. M. (2018). Measuring Occupants’ Behaviour for Buildings’ Dynamic Cosimulation. Journal of Sensors, 2018.

Ng, B. H., & Akasah, Z. A. (2013). Post Occupancy Evaluation Of Energy-Efficient Buildings In Tropical Climates-Malaysia. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research. 7(2): 8.

O'Callaghan, B. and Hyde R. (2011). Evaluating the Impact of Sustainable House Design and Environmental Attitudes on Resource Usage, 6th World Sustainable Building Conference, Helsinki, Finland, October 18-21.

Opoku, A. (2015). The role of culture in a sustainable built environment. In Sustainable Operations Management. 37-52. Springer, Cham.

Orts-Cortés, M. I., Moreno-Casbas, T., Squires, A., Fuentelsaz-Gallego, C., Maciá- Soler, L., & González-María, E. (2013). Content validity of the Spanish version of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Applied Nursing Research. 1-5. doi:10.1016/j.apnr.2013.08.006.

Pacheco, R., Ordóñez, J., & Martínez, G. (2012). Energy Efficient Design Of Building: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(6): 3559-3573.

Pan, S., Wang, X., Wei, S., Xu, C., Zhang, X., Xie, J., de Wilde, P. (2017). Energy Waste In Buildings Due To Occupant Behaviour. Energy Procedia. 105: 2233-2238.

Paone, A., & Bacher, J. P. (2018). The Impact Of Building Occupant Behavior On Energy Efficiency And Methods To Influence It: A Review Of The State Of The Art. Energies. 11(4): 953.

Parsian, N., & Dunning, A. T. (2009). Developing and Validating a Questionnaire to Measure Spirituality: A Psychometric Process. Global Journal of Health Science. 1(1): 2-11.

Paul, F., Connor, L., McCabe, M. and Ziniel, S. (2016). The Development And Content Validity Testing Of The Quick-EBP-VIK: A Survey Instrument Measuring Nurses ‘Values, Knowledge And Implementation Of Evidence-Based Practice. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 6(5): 118.

Pereira, P. F., & Ramos, N. M. (2019). Occupant Behaviour Motivations In The Residential Context–An Investigation Of Variation Patterns And Seasonality Effect. Building and Environment. 148: 535-546.

Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2004). Nursing Research: Principles and methods (7th ed.) Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.

Polit, D.F., Beck, C.T. and Owen, S.V. (2007). Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Research in Nursing and Health. 30(4): 459-467.Wiley Online Library.

Prindle, W. R. (2010). From Shop Floor To Top Floor: Best Business Practices In Energy Efficiency. Pew Center on Global Climate Change.

Ragsdale, J. D. (2011). Compelling Form: Architecture as Visual Persuasion, Cambridge: Scholars Publishing.

Relf, P. D. (1990). Psychological and Sociological Response To Plants: Implications For Horticulture. HortScience. 25(1): 11-13.

Roe, J. J., Aspinall, P. A., Mavros, P., & Coyne, R. (2013). Engaging The Brain: The Impact Of Natural Versus Urban Scenes Using Novel EEG Methods In An Experimental Setting. Environmental Sciences. 1(2): 93-104.

Roelofsen, P. (2008). Performance Loss In Open-Plan Offices Due To Noise By Speech. Journal of Facilities Management. 6(3): 202-211.

Roth, L. (1993). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, And Meaning, Boulder: Westview Press.

Rubio, D.M., Berg-Weger, M., Tebb, S.S., Lee, E.S. and Rauch, S. (2003). Objectifying Content Validity: Conducting A Content Validity Study In Social Work Research. Social Work Research. 27(2): 94-104. Oxford University Press

Ruskin, J. (1989). The Seven Lamps of Architecture. Dover Publications. Delaware.

Sadick, A. M., & Issa, M. H. (2017). Occupants' Indoor Environmental Quality Satisfaction Factors As Measures Of School Teachers' Well-Being. Building and Environment, 119: 99-109.

Salehi, M. M., Cavka, B. T., Frisque, A., Whitehead, D., & Bushe, W. K. (2015). A case study: The Energy Performance Gap of the Center for Interactive Research on Sustainability at the University of British Columbia. Journal of Building Engineering. 4: 127-139.

Schakib-Ekbatan, K., Cakıcı, F. Z., Schweiker, M., & Wagner, A. (2015). Does The Occupant Behavior Match The Energy Concept Of The Building?–Analysis Of A German Naturally Ventilated Office Building. Building and Environment. 84: 142-150.

Schauss, A. (1979). Tranquilizing Effect Of Color Reduces Aggressive Behavior And Potential Violence. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry, 8: 218-221.

Schott, M., Scheib, J., Long, N., Fleming, K., Benne, K., & Brackney, L. (2012). Progress On Enabling An Interactive Conversation Between Commercial Building Occupants And Their Building To Improve Comfort And Energy Efficiency (No. NREL/CP-5500-55197). National Renewable Energy Lab.(NREL), Golden, CO (United States).

Schweiker, M., Hawighorst, M., & Wagner, A. (2016). The Influence Of Personality Traits On Occupant Behavioural Patterns. Energy and Buildings. 131: 63-75.

Scofield, J. H. (2009). Do LEED-Certified Buildings Save Energy? Not Really. Energy and Buildings, 41(12): 1386-1390.

Scofield, J. H. (2013). Efficacy of LEED-Certification In Reducing Energy Consumption And Greenhouse Gas Emission For Large New York City Office Buildings. Energy and Buildings. 67: 517-524.

Shanteau, J., Weiss, D. J., Thomas, R. P., & Pounds, J. (2003). How Can You Tell if Someone is an Expert? Empirical Assessment of Expertise.

Shin, Y. B., Woo, S. H., Kim, D. H., Kim, J., Kim, J. J., & Park, J. Y. (2015). The Effect On Emotions And Brain Activity By The Direct/Indirect Lighting In The Residential Environment. Neuroscience letters. 584: 28-32.

Skulmoski, G. J., Hartman, F. T., and Krahn, J. (2007). The Delphi Method for Graduate Research. Journal of International Technology Education. 6:1-21.

Šujanová, P., Rychtáriková, M., Sotto Mayor, T., & Hyder, A. (2019). A Healthy, Energy-Efficient And Comfortable Indoor Environment, A Review. Energies. 12(8): 1414.

Suzaini M. Zaid, Amir Kiani Rad, Nurshuhada Zainon. (2017). Are green offices better than conventional?: Measuring operational energy consumption and carbon impact of green office in Malaysia. Facilities, 35(11/12): 622-637,

Stazi, F. (2017). The Envelope. Thermal Inertia in Energy Efficient Building Envelopes, 19–75. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-813970-7.00002-9

Sternberg E. M. (2010). Healing Spaces: the Science of Place and Well-being. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tetlow, R. M., Beaman, C. P., Elmualim, A. A., & Couling, K. (2012). The Impact Of Occupant Behaviour On The Variation Between The Design And In-Use Energy Consumption Of Non-Domestic Buildings: An Experimental Approach. In 3rd Annual TSBE EngD Conference Proceedings. University of Reading.

Thomsen, J., Berker, T., Lappegard Hauge, Å, Denizou, K., Wågø, S., & Jerkø, S. (2013). The Interaction Between Building And Users In Passive And Zero-Energy Housing And Offices: The Role Of Interfaces, Knowledge And User Commitment. Smart and Sustainable Built Environment. 2(1): 43-59.

Totterdell, P. A., & Niven, K. (2014). Workplace moods and emotions: A review of research. Createspace Independent Publishing.

Valle, C. R., Boks, C., & Berker, T. (2018). Occupant Engagement In The Office Environment: Role Assumptions About The Building Manager. Facilities. 36(11/12): 584-599.

Vasli, P., Dehghan-Nayeri, N. and Khosravi, L. (2018). Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer From Continuing Professional Education To Clinical Practice: Development And Psychometric Properties Of A New Instrument. Nurse Education in Practice. 28: 189-195.

Vartanian, O., Navarrete, G., Chatterjee, A., Fich, L. B., Leder, H., Modroño, C., & Skov, M. (2013). Impact of Contour On Aesthetic Judgments And Approach-Avoidance Decisions In Architecture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(Supplement 2), 10446-10453.

Vartanian, O., Navarrete, G., Chatterjee, A., Fich, L. B., Gonzalez-Mora, J. L., Leder, H., & Skov, M. (2015). Architectural Design And The Brain: Effects Of Ceiling Height And Perceived Enclosure On Beauty Judgments And Approach-Avoidance Decisions. Journal Of Environmental Psychology. 41: 10-18.

Vecchiato G., Tieri G., Jelic A., De Matteis F., Maglione A. G., Babiloni F. (2015). Electroencephalographic Correlates Of Sensorimotor Integration And Embodiment During The Appreciation Of Virtual Architectural Environments. Frontiers in Psychology. 6:1944.

Veitch, J. A., & Gifford, R. (1996). Assessing Beliefs About Lighting Effects On Health, Performance, Mood, And Social Behavior. Environment and Behavior. 28(4): 446-470.

Viera, A. J., & Garrett, J. M. (2005). Understanding Interobserver Agreement: The Kappa Statistic. Family Medicine, 37(5): 360-363.

Waltz, C. F., Strickland, O., & Lenz, E. (1991). Measurement in nursing research (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

Wolfe, A. K., Malone, E. L., Heerwagen, J. H., & Dion, J. P. (2014). Behavioral change and building performance: strategies for significant, persistent, and measurable institutional change (No. PNNL-23264). Pacific Northwest National Lab.(PNNL), Richland, WA (United States).

Wu, S. R., Greaves, M., Chen, J., & Grady, S. C. (2017). Green Buildings Need Green Occupants: A Research Framework Through The Lens of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Architectural Science Review, 60(1): 5-14.

Wu, S. R. (2015). Green Building Design And Visual Persuasion On Occupants’ Pro-Environmental Behaviours. In Proceedings of the 49th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association Held on 2 December 2015. 133-142.

Wynd, C.A., Schmidt, B. and Schaefer, M.A. (2003). Two quantitative approaches for estimating content validity. Western Journal of Nursing Research, SAGE Publications. 25(5): 508-518.

Xiong, L., Huang, X., Li, J., Mao, P., Wang, X., Wang, R., & Tang, M. (2018). Impact of Indoor Physical Environment on Learning Efficiency in Different Types of Tasks: A 3× 4× 3 Full Factorial Design Analysis. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health. 15(6): 1256.

Yan, D., & Hong, T. (2013). EBC Annex 66 Proposal: Definition And Simulation Of Occupant Behaviour In Buildings. International Energy Agency.

Yaghmale, F. (2003). Content Validity and Its Estimation. Journal of Medical Education, 3(1): 25-27.

Zamanzadeh, V., Ghahramanian, A., Rassouli, M., Abbaszadeh, A., Alavi-Majd, H. and Nikanfar, A.-R. (2015). Design And Implementation Content Validity Study: Development Of An Instrument For Measuring Patient-Centered Communication. Journal of Caring Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 4(2): 165.




How to Cite

Mohammad, I. S., Kar Yen, T., & Abdul Jalil, R. (2019). Content Validation of the User Attitudinal Component and Factors in Green Building. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 7(1), 21–35.