Integration of Structures in Students’ Design solutions: A Tool for Assessment


  • Prabhjot Singh Sugga Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, India
  • Gaurav Raheja Department of Architecture and Planning, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.
  • Sanjay Chikermane Department of Architecture and Planning, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.



Structures integration, teaching practices for structures, architectural education, Design studios


Traditional teaching practices are often questioned over their failure to generate interest and profound understanding of structures among students that further affect its integration in design solutions. Alternative teaching practices though claim to be more effective, need a sound evaluation measured through assessment of the level of integration of structures in design solutions- the ultimate objective of such courses. This paper evaluates the integration of structures in design solutions of architecture students.  The integration assessment framework used for evaluation is based on building systems approach across three dimensions of performance, physicality and visual. It has been developed after comparing four prior frameworks with a 4-point scale and customized to suit the context of the academic environment.  The framework offers flexibility in its use for different technical knowledge levels for each successive year of Bachelor of architecture program.  The expert opinion followed by testing on design samples from all the program years further refined the framework. The study was then scaled up to include students from first to fourth years for three architecture schools that have completely different institutional environment. The findings revealed that including structural resolution in a design studio mandate may result in higher resolution of structures in design solutions but it is the building typology and student interest that may result in higher visual integration of structures in design solutions. Furthermore, the institutional environment effects can be seen in the setting of studio mandates where architecture school in technical campus laid more emphasis on resolutions of structures and services when compared to other architecture schools

Author Biographies

Prabhjot Singh Sugga, Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, India

Reserach Scholar

Department of Architecture and Planning

Gaurav Raheja, Department of Architecture and Planning, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.

Associate Professor, 

Department of Architecture and Planning

Sanjay Chikermane, Department of Architecture and Planning, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.

Assistant Professor,

Department of Civil Engineering


Anna University, (2013). B.Arch. Degree Curriculum and Syllabus. 1–75.

Ansal University, (2012). Syllabus for Bachelors of Architecture.

Bachman, L.R., (2004). Integrated Buildings: The Systems Basis of Architecture,

Badrinarayan, S., (2008). Architectural Education in India- Reforming the Design Studio. School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

Beecham, S. et al., (2005). Using an Expert Panel To Validate A Requirements Process Improvement Model. Request PDF. Journal of Systems and Software, 76(3): 251–275.

Billington, D.P., (1983). The Tower and the Bridge, The New Art of Structural Engineering, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Black, R.G. & Duff, S., (1994). A Model for Teaching Structures : Finite Element Analysis in Architectural Education. Journal of Architectural Education, 48(1): 38–55.

Borill, C. & Bovill, C., (1991). Architectural Design: Integration of Structural and Environmental Systems, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, NYC.

Charleson, A.A.W., (2005). Structures as Architecture: A Sourcebook for Architects and Engineers, Elsevier. Available at:

Ching, F.D.K., Onouye, B.S. & Zuberbuhler, D., (2014). Building Structures Illustrated, John Wiley and Sons.

Chiuini, M., (2006). Less Is More: A Design-oriented Approach to Teaching Structures in Architecture. In the Building Technology Educators’ Symposium. p. 205.

Council of Architecture India, (2013a). Minimum Standards of Architectural Education and Brief Syllabus. Rakesh Press- Delhi

Council of Architecture India, (2013b). Status With Intake of Architectural Institutions in India. 1–63.Rakesh Press- Delhi

Darke, J., (1979). The primary Generator And The Design Process. Design Studies, 1(1): 36–44.

Indian Institute of Technology- Roorkee, (2016). Syllabus for the Bachelors of Architecture, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee Website. Available at: core course syllabi.pdf. Accesed on 20-4-2017

Jonassen, D.H., (1997). Instructional Design Models for Well-Structured and Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Learning Outcomes. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45(1): 65–90. Available at:

Matook, S. & Indulska, M., (2009). Improving the Quality Of Process Reference Models: A Quality Function Deployment-Based Approach. Decision Support Systems, 47(1): 60–71.

Morgan, M. ed., (1960). Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture, Dover Publications, NY.

National Institute of Technology Raipur, (2010). Syllabus for Five Years B.Arch Degree Course. Avaliable at: hppt:// Accessed on 24-04-2017

Rittgen, P., (2010). Collaborative Modeling: Roles, Activities and Team Organization. International Journal of Information System Modeling and Design, 1(3): 1–19.

Rush, R.D., (1986). The Building Systems Integration Handbook, AIA and John Wiley and Sons.

Salvadori, M., (1980). Why Buildings Stand UP, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc, NYC and London.

Salvadori, M. & Heller, R., (1986). Structure in Architecture, Prentice Hall.

School of Planning and Architecture-Bhopal, (2016). Syllabus for the Bachelor of Architecture, SPA Bhopal Website. Available at: Accessed on 20-04-2017

School of Planning and Architecture - New Delhi, (2012). Syllabus for the Bachelor of Architecture, SPA Delhi website. Available at: - except design.pdf. Accessed on 24-04-2017

Siniscalco, M.T. & Auriat, N., (2005). Questionnaire Design: Quantitative Research Methods In Educational Planning. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning

Stevens, G., (2017). A History of Architectural Education in the West. Architectural Blatherations. 1–6.

Tshumi, B., (2005). Event Cities 3, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Uihlein, M.S., (2013). Architectural Engineering In The Curriculum : The Case Study on AE and its Relationship to Architecture University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Building Technology Educator’s Symposium -Tectonics of Teaching. 3–10.

Uihlein, M.S., (2015). Structural Integration in Practice: Constructing a Framework from the Experiences of Structural Engineers. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 141(3), p.4014010. Available at:

University of Mumbai, (2012). Syllabus for the Bachelor of Architecture, University of Mumbai website. Available at: Accessed on 25-04-2017

Weatherhead, A., (1941). History of collegiate education in architecture in the United States. Columbia University.

Wiggins, G.E., (1989). Methodology in Architectural Design. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Available at: Accessed on 23-05-2017




How to Cite

Sugga, P. S., Raheja, G., & Chikermane, S. (2019). Integration of Structures in Students’ Design solutions: A Tool for Assessment. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 7(1), 37–45.