Impact of Urban Heat Island under the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 on Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings
AbstractThis study aims to evaluate the influence of urban heat island (UHI) under the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 on the energy consumption for space cooling in residential buildings. The weather conditions under the current and future status (master plan condition) simulated in the previous study (Trihamdani et al., 2014) were used and cooling loads in all the residential buildings in Hanoi over the hottest month were estimated under the simulated current and future conditions by using the building simulation program, TRNSYS (v17). Three most typical housing types in the city were selected for the simulation. The cooling loads of respective housing types were obtained in each of the districts in Hanoi. The results show that the total cooling loads over June 2010 is approximately 683 Terajoule (TJ) under the current status, but it is predicted to increase to 903 TJ under the master plan condition. The increment is largely due to the increase in number of households (203 TJ or 92%), but partially due to the increase in urban temperature, i.e. UHI effect (17 TJ or 8%). The increments in new built-up areas were found to be larger than those in existing built-up areas. The cooling load in apartment is approximately half of that in detached house, which is approximately half of that in row house. Moreover, it was seen that although sensible cooling loads increased with the increase in outdoor temperature, the latent cooling loads decreased due to the decrease in absolute humidity and the increase in air temperature.
ASHRAE. (2002). ASHRAE Guideline 14-2002: Measurement of energy and demand savings. Atlanta GA: ASHRAE, Inc.
ASHRAE. (2009). ASHRAE handbook of Fundamentals. Atlanta GA: ASHRAE, Inc.
Assimakopoulos, M. N., Mihalakakou, G., & Flocas, H. A. (2007). Simulating the thermal behavior of a building during summer period in the urban environment. Renewable Energy, 32(11), 1805–1816. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2006.08.003
Chow, W. T. L., & Roth, M. (2006). Temporal dynamics of the urban heat island of Singapore, 2260(July), 2243–2260. doi:10.1002/joc
Fung, W., Lam, K., Hung, W., Pang, S., & Lee, Y. (2006). Impact of urban temperature on energy consumption of Hong Kong.
Energy, 31(14), 2623–2637. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2005.12.009
Giridharan, R., Ganesan, S., & Lau, S. S. . (2004). Daytime urban heat island effect in high-rise and high-density residential developments in Hong Kong. Energy and Buildings, 36(6), 525–534. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2003.12.016
Hassid, S., Santamouris, M., Papanikolaou, N., Linardi, A., & Klitsikas, N. (2000). The effect of the Athens heat island on air conditioning load, (June 1997).
Hirano, Y., & Fujita, T. (2012). Evaluation of the impact of the urban heat island on residential and commercial energy consumption in Tokyo. Energy, 37(1), 371–383. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2011.11.018
Hsieh, C.-M., Aramaki, T., & Hanaki, K. (2007). The feedback of heat rejection to air conditioning load during the nighttime in subtropical climate. Energy and Buildings, 39(11), 1175–1182. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.06.016
Jiang, Y. (2009). Estimation of monthly mean daily diffuse radiation in China. Applied Energy, 86(9), 1458–1464. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.01.002
Kim, Y., & Baik, J. (2005). Spatial and Temporal Structure of the Urban Heat Island in Seoul, (1973), 591–606.
Kolokotroni, M., Giannitsaris, I., & Watkins, R. (2006). The effect of the London urban heat island on building summer cooling demand and night ventilation strategies. Solar Energy, 80(4), 383–392. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2005.03.010
Kolokotroni, M., Zhang, Y., & Watkins, R. (2007). The London Heat Island and building cooling design. Solar Energy, 81(1), 102–110. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2006.06.005
Kondoh, A., & Nishiyama, J. (1999). Changes in hydrological cycle due to urbanization in the suburb of Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan. Advances in Space Research, 26(7), 1173–1176. doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(99)01143-6
Konopacki, S., Akbari, H., Group, H. I., Energy, E., Division, T., & Berkeley, L. (2002). Energy Savings of Heat-Island Reduction Strategies in Chicago and Houston ( Including Updates for Baton Rouge , Sacramento , and Salt Lake City ), (February).
Kubota, T., & Ossen, D. R. (2009). Spatial characteristics of Urban Heat Island. In The 3rd Symposium of South East Aisan Technical University Consortium (SEATUC).
Memon, R. A., Leung, D. Y. C., & Chunho, L. (2008). A review on the generation, determination and mitigation of urban heat island. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), 20(1), 120–8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18572534
Mirasgedis, S., Sarafidis, Y., Georgopoulou, E., Lalas, D.,
Moschovits, M., Karagiannis, F., & Pakakonstantinou, D. (2006). Models for mid-term electricity demand forecasting incorporating weather influences. Energy, 31(2-3), 208–227. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2005.02.016
Nguyen, A.-T. (2013). Sustainable housing in Vietnam: Climate responsive design strategies.
Nieuwolt, S. (1966). The urban microclimate of Singapore. J. Trop. Geog, 22, 30–37.
Oke, T. (1982). The energetic basis of the urban heat island. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 108, 1–24.
Pereira, R. A., & Lopez, E. D. (2005). Characterizing the Spatial Pattern Changes of Urban Heat Islands in Metro Manila Using Remote Sensing Techniques, 25(1), 15–34.
Phan, T. V. Le, & Yoshino, H. (2010). Survey on Energy Consumption and Environment of Urban Residential Buildings in Vietnam, 1–12.
Phuong, T. (2012). Urban Heat Island effects due to land use change proposed by The Hanoi Master Plan.
Pongracz, R., Bartholy, J., & Dezso, Z. (2006). Remotely sensed thermal information applied to urban climate analysis. Advances in Space Research, 37(12), 2191–2196. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.06.069
Psiloglou, B. E., Giannakopoulos, C., Majithia, S., & Petrakis, M. (2009). Factors affecting electricity demand in Athens, Greece and London, UK: A comparative assessment. Energy, 34(11), 1855–1863. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2009.07.033
Rosenfeld, A. H., Akbari, H., Romm, J. J., & Pomerantz, M. (1998). Cool communities: strategies for heat island mitigation and smog reduction. Energy and Buildings, 28(1), 51–62. doi:10.1016/S0378-7788(97)00063-7
Sailor, D. (1997). Sensitivity of electricity and natural gas consumption to climate in the U.S.A.—Methodology and results for eight states. Energy, 22(10), 987–998. doi:10.1016/S0360-5442(97)00034-0
Santamouris, M. (2001). Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment. James & James Science Publishers, London.
Santamouris, M., Papanikolaou, N., Livada, I., Koronakis, I., Georgakis, C., Argiriou, A., & Assimakopoulos, D. . (2001). On the
impact of urban climate on the energy consumption of buildings. Solar Energy, 70(3), 201–216. doi:10.1016/S0038-092X(00)00095-5
Sham, S. (1986). Temperature in Kuala Lumpur and the Merging Klang Valley Conurbation.
Sham, S. (1987). Urbanization and the Atmospheric Environment in the Low Tropics.
Sham, S. (1990). Urban climatology in Malaysia: An overview. Energy and Buildings, 15(1-2), 105–117. doi:10.1016/0378-7788(90)90121-X
Shimoda, Y., Asahi, T., Taniguchi, A., & Mizuno, M. (2007). Evaluation of city-scale impact of residential energy conservation measures using the detailed end-use simulation model. Energy, 32(9), 1617–1633. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2007.01.007
SMS, S. M. S. (1985). The Biological Environment of Singapore and its neighboring countries. In Proceeding conference (pp. 50–76).
Trihamdani, A. R., Lee, H. S., Phuong, T. T. T., Kubota, T., Tanaka, T., & Matsuo, K. (2014). Effect of green strategy in Hanoi master plan on its urban climate. In International Conference of Grand Renewable Energy 2014, Tokyo, Japan, 27 Jul-1 Aug.
Van, T. T., & Bao, H. D. X. (2006). Application of thermal remote sensing on investigating feature of urban surface temperature with distribution of land cover types in Hochiminh City. Science & Technology Development, Environment, 70–74.
Van, T. T., & Bao, H. D. X. (2010). Study of the Impact of Urban Development on Surface Temperature Using Remote Sensing in Ho Chi Minh City, Northern Vietnam. Geographical Research, 48(1), 86–96. doi:10.1111/j.1745-5871.2009.00607.
How to Cite
Copyright of articles that appear in International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability belongs exclusively to Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Penerbit UTM Press). This copyright covers the rights to reproduce the article, including reprints, electronic reproductions or any other reproductions of similar nature.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- This Journal applies Creative Commons Licenses of CC-BY-NC-SA
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).