Relationship between Window and View Factors in the Workplace: A SEM Approach


  • Mercy Inikpi Achoba Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor
  • Roshida Abdul Majid Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor
  • Cyril Obinna Obiefuna Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria



Window, View, Workplace, Occupants, Structural Equation Model


Office occupants’ have always preferred workplaces that have windows that connects them to the outside. Window access to the outside can influence occupants’ satisfaction with the combination of other workplace features. This study aims to identify the window and view factors relationship in the workplace, to confirm the reliability and validity of the measurement and structural model. Adopting a cross-sectional survey design, primary data from five offices in the Kogi State of Nigeria with 267 respondents were collected by using the convenience sampling method and analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for Social Science version 23 and AMOS 22.0 version as the modelling tool. The study identified eleven vital factors that are interrelated in the relationship between windows and view in the workplace. They are referred to as latent construct namely; Window distance (WDB), Seating arrangement (SAB), Room height (FHB), Office size (OSB), Window position (WPB), Window Sill level (WLC), Window size (SWC), Window type (TWC), View content (CVC), View satisfaction (VSC), and Occupants’ satisfaction (SAT). The result showed a valid model using the Structural Equation Model, and the effect of the current workplace negligence on occupants’. This study improves the existing knowledge on the window and view relationship in the workplace, and provide suggestions for Facility Managers, Architects, and Interior Designers on maintaining a healthy workplace environment

Author Biographies

Mercy Inikpi Achoba, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor

Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, 

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor.

PhD Scholar.

Roshida Abdul Majid, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor

Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Senior Lecturer

Cyril Obinna Obiefuna, Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria

Department of Architectural Technology

Lecturer II


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How to Cite

Achoba, M. I., Abdul Majid, R., & Obiefuna, C. O. (2021). Relationship between Window and View Factors in the Workplace: A SEM Approach. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 8(2), 103–113.