Environmental Design Consideration for Courtyards in Residential Buildings in Hot-humid Climates: A Review


  • Mohd Azuan Zakaria Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, Japan
  • Tetsu Kubota Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, Japan.




This paper discusses environmental design considerations for courtyards in residential buildings in hot-humid climates through a literature review by contrasting with those in hot-dry climates. The main focus of discussion is on shading and ventilation effects of courtyards. The results of the analysis revealed that the form and orientation of a courtyard were less significant in its environmental design considerations for the hot-humid climates. Although these factors were reported to be the most important design considerations in the case of hot-dry climates. Mean-while, natural ventilation has been commonly utilized in wooden-structured traditional build-ings in hot-humid climates. However, most of the urban houses in Southeast Asian regions are becoming heavy-weight brick-walled buildings nowadays. It could be seen that the required environmental effects of a courtyard and its design considerations in the case of high thermal mass buildings in hot-humid climates are still uncertain and need to be investigated further.


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How to Cite

Zakaria, M. A., & Kubota, T. (2014). Environmental Design Consideration for Courtyards in Residential Buildings in Hot-humid Climates: A Review. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.11113/ijbes.v1.n1.7