An Indicator-Based Approach for Micro-Scale Assessment of Physical Flood Vulnerability of Individual Buildings


  • Ismaila Usman Kaoje Tropical Map Research Group, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Zulkarnain Abdul Rahman Tropical Map Research Group, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Tze Huey Tam Tropical Map Research Group, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Radhie Mohd Salleh Tropical Map Research Group, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Nurul Hazrina Binti Idris Geoscience and Digital Earth Centre, Research Institute for Sustainability and Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru ,Johor, Malaysia
  • Abdullah Hisam Omar Geomatic Innovation Research Group (GIG), Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Flood, physical Vulnerability, indicators, buildings


The current trends of floods event in many countries are alarming. Hence, managing flood and the associated risk are crucial in order to reduce the loss and to be well prepared for the combined impact of urbanization and climate changes. The best approach to manage flood activities is a risk-based approach, where the vulnerability of elements at risk is reduced to a minimum. There is a significant number of studies that use an indicator-based approach for flood vulnerability assessment with focus on the macro-scale. However, this paper assesses physical flood vulnerability of buildings at micro-scale using an indicator-based method in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. The region is one of the most flood affected regions in Malaysia. Micro-scale vulnerability assessment considers damages for individual buildings at risk, rather than in aggraded manner. In this study, the methodology adopted involve the use of 1D-2D SOBEK flood modelling, the selection and weightage of indicators, development of spatial based building index and, production of building vulnerability maps. The findings demonstrate the physical pattern of flood vulnerability of buildings at a micro-scale. The approach can assist in flood management planning and risk mitigation at a local scale


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