Different Façade Types and Building Integration in Energy Efficient Building Design Strategies





Façade systems, Façade materials, Building envelope, Energy efficiency, Indoor comfort conditions


Building façades play a major role in improving the effects of outdoor environment conditions on indoor comfort conditions. Façades, which are designed as energy efficiency, are created according to different performance parameters and can offer solutions appropriate for the climatic condition. This paper aims to describe and highlight the role of design and application determinants in building façade types according to energy efficiency in different climatic classes. For this purpose, 12 building façade types in different climate types were investigated and analyzed by a purposive or judgmental sampling technique. Façade analyses have been carried out by considering double skin, adaptive, photovoltaic panel, vertical green, media and structural membrane façades created as a result of developing technological opportunities. Balance of heat loss and gain, preventing overheating, providing daylight and natural ventilation, active and mechanical solutions for climate-sensitive, noise control, recycling and evaluating the initial investment cost are presented. With examinations, it has been determined that different façade systems are innovative construction systems in creating energy efficiency. It has been concluded that the effect of improving indoor comfort conditions of the building by controlling the outdoor environment conditions with the construction of different facade systems is very important in the architectural process. With the development of technology and smart systems, the impact of the façades on the climate analysis and energy efficient design strategies will be much more important in the future

Author Biography

Muammer Yaman, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Gazi University

PhD Candidate / Research Asisstant



Aelenei, D., Aelenei, L., & Vieira, C. P. (2016). Adaptive Façade: Concept, Applications, Research Questions. Energy Procedia, 91: 269-275. doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.06.218

Ahmed, M. M. S., Abel-Rahman, A. K., Ali, A. H. H., & Suzuki M. (2016). Double Skin Façade: The State of Art on Building Energy Efficiency. Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, 4(1): 84-89. doi:10.7763/JOCET.2016.V4.258

Aksamija, A. (2015). High-Performance Building Envelopes: Design Methods for Energy Efficient Façades. 4th BEST Conference Building Enclosure Science & Technology (BEST4). Kansas City, USA.

Altan, H., Hajibandeh, M., Aoul, K., & Deep A. (2016). Chapter 8-Pasive design, ZEMCH: Toward the Delivery of Zero Energy. Springer, Switzerland.

Archdaily, (2020a). Brick Passive Designed University /TAISEI DESIGN Planners Architects & Engineers. Retrieved December, 2020, from https://www.archdaily.com/877077/brick-passive-designed-university-taisei-corporation

Archdaily, (2020b). Green Dot Animo Leadership High School / Brooks + Scarpa Architects. Retrieved December, 2020, from https://www.archdaily.com/340616/green-dot-animo-leadership-high-school-brooks-scarpa-architects

Archdaily, (2020c). Stacking Green / VTN Architects. Retrieved December, 2020, from https://www.archdaily.com/199755/stacking-green-vo-trong-nghia

Archi Monarch, (2020). Passive Cooling. Retrieved December, 2020, from https://archi-monarch.com/passive-cooling/

Attia, S., Bilir, S., Safy, T., Struck, C., Loonen R., & Goia, F. (2018). Current Trends and Future Challenges in The Performance Assessment of Adaptive Façade Systems. Energy & Buildings, 179: 165-182. doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.09.017

Attia, S., Lioure, R., & Declaude, Q. (2020). Future Trends and Main Concepts of Adaptive Façade Systems. Energy Science & Engineering, 8: 3255–3272. doi.org/10.1002/ese3.725

Aygencel, M. (2011). Vertical Green Systems [in Turkish]. Master Dissertation, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Chiu, S. K., & Lin, E. S. (2015). Tensile Membrane Façade: Performance Analysis of Energy, Daylighting and Material Optical Properties. 10th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Bern, Switzerland.

Designboom, (2020). Brisbane Airport Kinetic Parking Garage Facade by Ned Kahn + UAP. Retrieved December, 2020, from https://www.designboom.com/art/brisbane-airport-kinetic-parking-garage-façade-by-nedkahn-uap/

Eberl, A. (ed.) (2016). Energy Design Vol. IV/I-Adaptive Façade Systems. Graz University of Technology Institute of Buildings and Energy (IGE) Energy Design, Seminar.

Elgizawy, E. M. (2016). The Effect of Green Façades of Landscape Ecology. Procedia Environmental Science, 34: 119-130. doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.04.012

Ghauri, P., Gronhaug, K., & Strange, R. (2020). Research Methods in Business Studies. Harlow, FT/ Prentice Hall, Fifth Edition, USA.

Giuda, G. M. D., Giana, P. E., Masera, G., Seghezzi, E., & Villa V. (2019). A BIM-based Approach to Façade Cladding Optimization: Geometrical, Economic and Production Control in a DfMA Perspective. 2019 European Conference on Computing in Construction Chania, Crete, Greece.

Grana, P., & Haroldson, C. (2017). Wall-Mounted Solar: A Rising Trend or Barely Hanging on? Yeni Enerji-Solar Power World, 60: 54-59.

Günc, A., & Kurnuç Seyhan, A. (2013). Günes Enerjisine Dayalı Yenilikçi Kinetik Yapı Kabuğu Uygulamalar [in Turkish]. I. Uluslararası Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimlerinde Yenilikçi Teknolojiler Sempozyumu (ISITES2013), Sakarya, Turkey.

Haringey Council, (2017). Energy, Save Energy-Together We Can Make a Difference. Retrieved December, 2020, from https://www.haringey.gov.uk/environment-and-waste/going-green/energy

Howard, S. (2008). A Green Screen for Beijing, Architectural Record, 69-70.

Huang, Y., & Niu, J. (2016). Optimal Building Envelope Design Based on Simulated Performance: History, Current Status and New Potentials. Energy and Buildings, 117: 387-398. doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.09.025

Inan, T., & Başaran, T. (2014). A General Evaluation on Double Skin Facades [in Turkish], Megaron, 9(2): 132-142. doi:10.5505/MEGARON.2014.91885

Kang, J., Ahn, K., Park, C., & Schuetze T. (2016). A Case Study on Passive vs. Active Strategies for an Energy-Efficient School Building Design. 8th Conference of the International Forum on Urbanism, Incheon, Korea.

Kumar, G., & Raheja G. (2016). Design Determinants of Building Envelope for Sustainable Built Environment: A Review. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 3(2): 111-118.

Lechner, N. (2015). Heating, Cooling, Lighting Sustainable Method for Architect. Hoboken, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Fourth Edition, New Jersey, USA.

Lee, J. S., & Sul, S. H. (2017). Media Façade and Design Identity of Buildings Based On Visual Density. International Journal of Asia Digital Art & Design, 21(1): 49-55.

Loonen, R. C. G. M., Hoes, P., & Hensen, J. L. M. (2014). Performance Prediction of Buildings with Responsive Building Elements: Challenges and Solutions. 2014 Building Simulation and Optimization Conference (BSO14), London, United Kingdom.

Loonen, R. C. G. M., Rico-Martinez, J.M., Favoino, F., Brzezicki, M., Menezo, C., La Ferla, G., & Aelenei, L. (2015). Design for Façade Adaptability-Towards A Unified and Systematic Characterization. 10th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, Bern, Switzerland.

Mandaglio, M. (2019). Chameleon Building. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 296, Milan, Italy.

Manioglu, G., & Koçlar Oral, G. (2010). Ekolojik Yaklısımda Iklimle Dengeli Cephe Tasarımı [in Turkish], 5. Ulusal Çatı & Cephe Konferansı, İzmir, Turkey.

McLauchlan, D. J., & Lavan, D. (2010). Richard J. Klarchek Information Commons Building: Chicago, IL, High Performing Buildings. Spring 2010.

Moere, A. V., & Wouters, N. (2012). The Role of Context Media Architecture. PerDis, Portekiz.

Motevalian, E. (2014). Double Skin Façades Performance: Effects on Daylight and Visual Comfort in Office Spaces. University of Southern California, Faculty of the USC School of Architecture, Master Thesis, Los Angeles.

Oh J., Hong T., Hakpyeong K., An J., Kwangbok J., & Koo C. (2017). Advanced Strategies for Net-Zero Energy Building: Focused on the Early Phase and Usage Phase of a Building’s Life Cycle. Sustainability, 9: 2272. doi.org/10.3390/su9122272

Paech, C. (2016). Structural Membranes Used in Modern Building Façades. Procedia Engineering, 155: 61-70. doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.007

Pagliaro, M., Ciriminna, R., & Palmisano, G. (2010). BIPV: Merging the Photovoltaic with the Construction Industry. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 18: 61-72.

Pasquay, T., & Müller, H. F. O. (2000). Academy Mont-Cenis: Planning of Natural Ventilation and Daylighting in A Large Microclimatic Envelope. World Renewable Energy Congress VI, Brighton, UK.

Perini, K., Othello, M., Fraaj, A. L. A., Haas E.M., & Raiteri R. (2011). Vertical Greening Systems and the Effect on Air Flow and Temperature on the Building Envelope. Building and Environment, 46: 2287-2294. doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.05.009

Shahin, H. S. M. (2019). Adaptive Building Envelopes of Multistory Buildings as an Example of High Performance Building Skins. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 58: 345–352. doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2018.11.013

Sharaidin, K., & Salim, F. (2012). Design Considerations for Adopting Kinetic Façades in Building Practice. In Digital Physicality| Physical Digitality: (eCAADe 2012), Czech Technical University, Faculty of Architecture.

Shoubi, M. V., Shoubi, M. V., Bagchi, A., & Barough, A. S. (2018). Reducing the Operational Energy Demand in Buildings Using Building Information Modeling Tools and Sustainability Approaches. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 6: 41-55. doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2014.09.006

Si, B., Tian, Z., Jin, X., Zhou, X., Tang, P., & Shi X. (2016). Performance Indices and Evaluation of Algorithms in Building Energy Efficient Design Optimization. Energy, 114: 100-112. doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.07.114

Snow, M., & Prasad, D. (2011). Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV). Environment Design Guide, EDG 68, Royal Australian Institute of Architects.

Solla, I.F. (2010). Façades Confidential. Retrieved December, 2020, from http://façadesconfidential.blogspot.com/2010/12/thyssenkrupp-quarter-façades-giants.html

Taherdoost, H. (2016). Sampling Methods in Research Methodology; How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM), 5(2): 18-27. doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3205035

Tensaform, (2020). Asma Germe Sistemler [in Turkish]. Retrieved December, 2020, from http://www.tensaform.com/tr/anasayfa/

Torcellini, P., Pless, S., Deru, M., & Crawley D. (2006). Zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look at the Definition. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL Conference Paper, USA.

UN Studio, (2020). Galleria Centercity. Retrieved December, 2020, from https://www.unstudio.com/en/page/388/galleria-centercity

Williamson, C. (2013). A Plant-Covered Home: House Patrocinio by Rebelo De Andrade. Retrieved December, 2020, from https://design-milk.com/plant-covered-house-patrocinio-by-rebelo-de-andrade/

Yesilli, G. (2016). The Advanced Facade Systems in the Frame of Ecologic Energy Efficient Design, Changing According to Climatic Conditions and Foresight for the Future [in Turkish]. Master Dissertation, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.