Three Sustainability Advantages of Urban Densification in a Concentric Urban Form: Evidence from Bandung City, Indonesia
AbstractAmid limited land resource in Bandung city, pressure on the needs of lands continuously exists. Urban densification may create high density spaces and minimizes trip length by exploiting vertical growth. In contrary, sprawling city expands horizontally and creates low density spaces. Sprawling cities in most cases are motorized transport dependent cities. The study was carried out by analyzing the present form of Bandung City. Bandung City in Indonesia, a pronounced concentric-cum-sprawling city of a developing country, was selected as study area. The analysis covers three most determinative environment-related issues that lead to sustainability advantages of the city, since appropriately addressing the issues would likely contribute to sustainability of the city. These three issues are transport energy, flood, and groundwater depletion. Analysis on transport energy consumption in three urban development forms was carried out. The study result reveals that urban densification may lead to lower transport energy consumption as reflected in the mixed use areas compared to the other two urban development forms. The study also confirms that urban densification enables groundwater depletion to be minimized amid significant abstraction in the city and at the same time reducing flooding problems.
Al-Hinti,_I., A. Al-Ghandoor, B. Akash, E. Abu-Nada (2007). Energy Saving and CO2 Mitigation through Restructuring Jordan’s Transportation Sector: The Diesel Passenger Cars Scenario. Energy Policy 35, pp. 5003-5011.
Anas, A., Pines, D. (2008). Anti-sprawl policies in a system of congested cities, Regional Science and Urban Economics, doi:10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2008.05.001
Canora, F., M. D. Fidelibus, A. Sciortino, G. Spilotro (2008). Variation of infiltration rate through karstic surfaces due to land use changes: A case study in Murgia (SE-Italy). Engineering Geology 99, pp. 210-227.
Chow, V.T., D.R. Maidment, L.W. Mays (1988). Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill Science, First Edition.
Dantzig, G. B. and T.L. Saaty (1973). Compact City: A Plan for Livable Urban Environment. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.
da Silva, A.N.R., Brondino, N.C.M., Avalos, M.S., Costa, G.C.F. (2001). Urban Sprawl and Energy Use for Transportation in the Largest Brazilian Cities. Proceedings of Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management: An Urban Space Odyssey (CUPUM), July 18–21, 2001 Hawaii.
Douglas, I. (1983). The Urban Environment, Edward Arnold, London.
Fang, S., G.Z. Gertnera, Z. Sun, A.A. Anderson (2004). The Impact of Interactions in Spatial Simulation of the Dynamics of Urban Sprawl. Landscape and Urban Planning 73, pp. 294-306
Gusdorfa, F. and S. Hallegatte (2007). Compact or Spread-out Cities: Urban Planning, Taxation, and the Vulnerability to Transportation Shocks. Energy Policy 35, pp. 4826–4838.
Jenks, M., E. Burton and K. Williams eds. (1996). The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form?. E&FN Spon, Routledge, London and New York.
Kasanko, M., J.I. Barredo, C. Lavalle, N. McCormick, L. Demicheli, V. Sagris, and A. Brezger (2006). Are European Cities becoming Dispersed? A Comparative Analysis of 15 European Urban Areas. Landscape and Urban Planning 77, pp. 111–130
Kollet, S.J., R.M. Maxwell (2006). Integrated Surface- Groundwater Flow Modeling: A Free-surface Overland Flow Boundary Condition in a Parallel Groundwater Flow Model. Advances in Water Resources 29, pp. 945-958
Lau, J.C.Y., and C.C.H. Chiu (2004). Accessibility of workers in a compact city: the case of Hong Kong. Habitat International 28, pp. 89-102.
Lund, H., and E. Munster (2006). Integrated Transportation and Energy Sector CO2 Emission Control Strategies. Transport Policy 13, pp. 426-433
McCuen, R.H. (2004). Hydrologic Analysis and Design. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458, 3rd edition.
Mitsch, W.J., and J.G. Gosselink, (2000). Wetlands, John Wiley and Sons, NY, 3rd Edition.
Molina, A., G. Govers, V. Vanacker, J. Poesen, E. Zeelmaekers, F. Cisneros (2007). Runoff generation in a degraded Andean ecosystem: Interaction of vegetation cover and land use, Catena 71, pp. 357–370
Newman, Peter W.G., and J. Kenworthy (1989). Cities and Automobile Dependence: A Sourcebook. Gower Technical, Aldershot, England.
Paravantis, J.A., D.A. Georgakellos (2007). Trends in Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Passenger Cars and Buses. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 74, pp. 682-707.
Podwojewski, P., D. Orange, P. Jouquet, C. Valentin, V.T. Nguyen, J.L. Janeau, D.T. Tran (2008). Land-use Impacts on Surface Runoff and Soil Detachment within Agricultural Sloping Lands in Northern Vietnam. Catena 74, pp. 109-118
Rees, W.E. (1992). Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: what urban economics leaves out. Environment and Urbanization 4(2), pp. 121-130.
Saunders, M. J., T. Kuhnimhof, B. Chlond, A.N.R. da Silva (2008). Incorporating Transport Energy into Urban Planning. Transportation Research Part A, 42, pp. 874-882
Smith, H., J. Raemaekers (1998). Land Use Pattern and Transport in Curitiba. Land Use Policy, 15(3), pp. 233-251.
Thomas L., W. Cousins (1996). The Compact City: A Successful, Desirable and Achievable Urban Form? In M. Jenks, E. Burton and K. Williams (eds). The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form? E&FN Spon, London, pp. 101-113.
Tratalos, Jamie, Richard A. Fuller, Philip H. Warren, Richard G. Davies, Kevin J. Gaston (2007). Urban form, Biodiversity Potential and Ecosystem Services. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83(4), pp. 308-317
UN (2001). Sustainable Urban Development: A Regional Perspective on Good Urban Governance. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia. New York.
Wackernagel, M. and W. Rees (1996), Our Ecological Footprint, Chapter 2, Footprints and Sustainability: New Society Publishers, pp. 31-47.
Welderufael,W.A., P.A.L. Le Roux , M. Hensleyet (2008). Quantifying Rainfall-Runoff Relationships on the Dera Calcic Fluvic Regosol Ecotope in Ethiopia. Agricultural. Water Management, doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2008.04.007
Williams, K. (1999). Urban Intensification Policies in England: Problems and Contradictions", Land Use Policy, 16(3), pp.167-178.
Media Center (2007). Pusat Informasi Bencana di Indonesia (Indonesia Center for Disaster Information). http://www.mediacenter.or.id. Retrieved on 14 July 2008.
Perpamsi (2008). The Association of Water Supply Corporations of Indonesia. http://www.perpamsi.org Retrieved on 14 July 2008.
How to Cite
Copyright of articles that appear in International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability belongs exclusively to Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Penerbit UTM Press). This copyright covers the rights to reproduce the article, including reprints, electronic reproductions or any other reproductions of similar nature.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- This Journal applies Creative Commons Licenses of CC-BY-NC-SA
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).